Kratom antiviral

Kratom antiviral DEFAULT

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family) Leaves

1. Cos P., Vlietinck A.J., Berghe D.V., Maes L. Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to develop a stronger in vitro ‘proof-of-concept’ J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106:290–302. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.003. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

2. Pavrez M., Mahboob H.K., Zahuul I., Shek M.H. Antimicrobial activities of the petroleum ether, methanol and acetone extracts of kaempferia galangal. rhizome. J. Life Earth Sci. 2005;1:25–29.[Google Scholar]

3. Khan M., Kibm M., Oinoloso B. Antimicrobial activity of the alkaloidal comtituents of the root bark of Eupomatia lourina. Phannaceut. Biol. 2003;41:277–280. doi: 10.1076/phbi. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

4. Halliwell B., Gutteridge J.M.C. Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage and antioxydant therapy. Lancet. 1984;1:1396–1397. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. Idid S.Z., Saad L.B. Evaluation of Analgesia Induced by Mitragynine,Morphine and Paracetamolon Mice. ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation; Bangi, Malaysia: 1988. pp. 1–7. [Google Scholar]

6. Macko E., Weisbach J.A. Some observations on the pharmacology of mitragynine. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 1972;198:145–161. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Perry L.M. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA, USA: 1980. [Google Scholar]

8. Huang D., Ou B., Prior R.L. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:1841–1856. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

9. Karagozler A.A., Erdag B., Emek Y.C., Uygun D.A. Antioxidant activity and proline content of leaf extracts from Dorystoechas hastate. Food Chem. 2008;111:400–407. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. González E.M., de Ancos B., Cano M.P. Relation between bioactive compounds and free radical-scavenging capacity in berry fruits during frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2003;83:722–726. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.1359. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

11. Llobera A., Cañellas J. Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of Manto Negro red grape (Vitis vinifera): Pomace and stem. Food Chem. 2007;101:659–666. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.025. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

12. Makris D.P., Boskou G., Andrikopoulos N.K. Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2007;20:125–132.[Google Scholar]

13. Lecumberri E., Mateos R., Izquierdo-Pulido M., Rupérez P., Goya L., Bravo L. Dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and physico-chemical properties of a fibrerich product from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Food Chem. 2007;104:948–954.[Google Scholar]

14. Prior R.L., Wu X., Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:4290–4302. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Singleton V.L., Rossi J.A. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 1965;16:144–158.[Google Scholar]

16. Diplock A.T. Will the good fairies please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative disease. Free Radic. Res. 1997;27:511–532. doi: 10.3109/10715769709065791. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

17. Leven M., VandenBerghe D.A., Mertens F., Vlictinck A., Lammens E. Screening of higher plants for biological activities/-antimicrobial activity. Plant. Med. 1979;36:311–321. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

18. Guidelines for the Appropriate use of Herbal Medicines. WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 23. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific; Manila: 1998. [Google Scholar]

19. Miliauskasa G., Venskutonisa P.R., Van Beekb T.A. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem. 2004;85:231–237. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.05.007. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

20. Sakanaka S., Tachibana Y., Okada Y. Preparation and antioxidant properties of extracts of Japanese persimmon leaf tea (kakinoha-cha) Food Chem. 2005;89:569–575.[Google Scholar]

21. Choi C.W., Kim S.C., Hwang S.S., Choi B.K., Ahn H.J., Lee M.Y., Park S.H., Kim S.K. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity between Korean medicinal plants and flavonoids by assay-guided comparison. Plant Sci. 2002;163:1161–1168.[Google Scholar]

22. Abdel-Hameed E.S.S. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples. Food Chem. 2008:1133–1138.[Google Scholar]

23. Alzoreky N.S., Nakahara K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 2003;80:223–230. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00169-1. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

24. Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M.M., Sherris J.C., Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single disc method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1996;36:493–496. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

25. NCCLS. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically. 3rd. NC-275 CLS, Approved standard. NCCLS document M100-S12.; Wayne, PA, USA: 2002. [Google Scholar]


Can Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Alleviate COVID-19 Pain? A Case Study

1. Huang X, Wei F, Hu L, Wen L, Chen K. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Arch. Iran Med. (2020) 23:268–71. 10.34172/aim.2020.09 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

2. Jiang F, Deng L, Zhang L, Cai Y, Cheung CW, Xia Z. Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J. Gen. Intern. Med. (2020) 35:1545–49. 10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

3. Moore N, Carleton B, Blin P, Bosco-Levy P, Droz C. Does Ibuprofen worsen COVID-19?Drug Saf. (2020) 43:611–4. 10.1007/s40264-020-00953-0 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

4. Pergolizzi JV, Jr, Varrassi G, Magnusson P, Lequang JA, Paladini A, Taylor R, et al. . COVID-19 and NSAIDS: a narrative review of knowns and unknowns. Pain Ther. (2020) 1–6. 10.1007/s40122-020-00173-5 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

5. Micallef J, Soeiro T, Jonville-Béra AP. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pharmacology, and COVID-19 infection. Therapie. (2020) 75:355–62. 10.1016/j.therap.2020.05.003 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

6. Jean SS, Lee PI, Hsueh PR. Treatment options for COVID-19: the reality and challenges. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. (2020) 53:436–43. 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.034 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

7. Lenkens M, de Wit H, Danser AH, Esselink AC, Horikx A, Ten Oever J, et al. . Geneesmiddelen bij COVID-19 [medication and comedication in COVID-19 patients]. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. (2020) 164:D4995. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Kakodkar P, Kaka N, Baig MN. A comprehensive literature review on the clinical presentation, and management of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cureus. (2020) 12:e7560. 10.7759/cureus.7560 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

9. Zhang J, Xie B, Hashimoto K. Current status of potential therapeutic candidates for the COVID-19 crisis. Brain Behav. Immun. (2020) 87:59–73. 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.046 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

10. Bertisch S, Ellerin T, Farid H. Coronavirus Resource Center-Harvard Health Publishing (2020). Available online at: (accessed October 21, 2020).

11. Kutti Sridharan G, Kotagiri R, Chandiramani VH, Mohan BP, Vegunta R, Vegunta R, et al. . COVID-19 and avoiding Ibuprofen. How good is the evidence?Am. J. Ther. (2020) 27:e400–2. 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001196 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

12. Gallen T. COVID-19 Ibuprofen Fears Hit Advil Sales In GSK's Q2 (2020). Available online at: (accessed October 21, 2020).

13. Bath R, Bucholz T, Buros AF, Singh D, Smith KE, Veltri CA, et al. . Self-reported health diagnoses and demographic correlates with kratom use: results from an online survey. J. Addict. Med. (2020) 14:244–52. 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000570 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

14. Singh D, Narayanan S, Muller CP, Swogger MT, Chear NJY, Dzulkapli EB, et al. . Motives for using kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) among regular users in Malaysia. J. Ethnopharmacol. (2019) 233:34–40. 10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.038 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

15. Shellard EJ. The alkaloids of Mitragyna with special reference to those of Mitragyna speciosa, Korth. Bull. Narc. (1974) 26:41–55. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

16. Takayama H. Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2004) 52:916–28. 10.1248/cpb.52.916 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

17. Kruegel AC, Grundmann O. The medicinal chemistry and neuropharmacology of kratom: a preliminary discussion of a promising medicinal plant and analysis of its potential for abuse. Neuropharmacology. (2018) 134(Pt A):108–20. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.08.026 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

18. Matsumoto K, Horie S. Analgesic effects of mitragynine and analogs. In: Raffa RB. editor. Kratom and Other Mitragynines (2014). p. 177–94. [Google Scholar]

19. Matsumoto K, Horie S, Ishikawa H, Takayama H, Aimi N, Ponglux D, et al. . Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. Life Sci. (2004) 74:2143–55. 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.054 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

20. Saingam D, Assanangkornchai S, Geater AF, Balthip Q. Pattern and consequences of krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use among male villagers in southern Thailand: a qualitative study. Int. J. Drug Policy. (2013) 24:351–8. 10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.09.004 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

21. Ahmad K, Aziz Z. Mitragyna speciosa use in the northern states of Malaysia: a cross-sectional study. J. Ethnopharmacol. (2012) 141:446–50. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.009 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

22. Leong Bin Abdullah MFI, Tan KL, Mohd IS, Yusoff NS, Chear NJY, Singh D. Lipid profile of regular kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) users in the community setting. PLoS ONE. (2020) 15:e0234639. 10.1371/journal.pone.0234639 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

23. Grundmann O. Patterns of kratom use and health impact in the US-results from an online survey. Drug Alcohol. Depend. (2017) 176:63–70. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.007 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

24. Garcia-Romeu A, Cox DJ, Smith KE, Dunn KE, Griffiths RR. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): user demographics, use patterns, and implications for the opioid epidemic. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2020) 208:107849. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107849 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

25. Coe MA, Pillitteri JL, Sembower MA, Gerlach KK, Henningfield JE. Kratom as a substitute for opioids: results from an online survey. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2019) 202:24–32. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.05.005 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

26. Vicknasingam B, Chooi WT, Rahim AA, Ramachandram D, Singh D, et al. . Kratom and pain tolerance: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Yale J. Biol. Med. (2020) 93:229–238. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

27. Singh D, Müller CP, Vicknasingam BK. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2014) 139:132–7. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.03.017 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

28. Anwar M, Law R, Schier J. Notes from the field: kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) exposures reported to poison centers - United States, 2010-2015. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (2016) 65:748–9. 10.15585/mmwr.mm6529a4 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

29. Corkery JM, Streete P, Claridge H, Goodair C, Papanti D, Orsolini L, et al. . Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. J. Psychopharmacol. (2019) 33:1102–23. 10.1177/0269881119862530 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

30. Henningfield JE, Grundmann O, Babin JK, Fant RV, Wang DW, Cone EJ. Risk of death associated with kratom use compared to opioids. Prev. Med. (2019) 128:105851. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105851 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

31. Raja Aziddin RE, Mustafa MR, Mohamed Z, Mohd MA. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Mitragyna Speciosa Extract. MJS (2005) 24:191–4. Available online at: (accessed October 08, 2020). [Google Scholar]

32. Shaik Mossadeq WM, Sulaiman MR, Tengku Mohamad TA, Chiong HS, Zakaria ZA, Jabit ML, et al. . Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanolic extract. Med. Princ. Pract. (2009) 18:378–84. 10.1159/000226292 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

33. Utar Z, Majid MI, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, Lan TM. Mitragynine inhibits the COX-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. (2011) 136:75–82. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

34. Chittrakarn S, Keawpradub N, Sawangjaroen K, Kansenalak S, Janchawee B. (2010). The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid, mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.). J. Ethnopharmacol.129:344–9. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.035 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

35. Alsarraf E, Myers J, Culbreth S, Fanikos J. Kratom from head to toe—case reviews of adverse events and toxicities. Curr. Emer. Hosp. Med. Rep. (2019) 7:141–68. 10.1007/s40138-019-00194-1 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

36. Aldyab M, Ells PF, Bui R, Chapman TD, Lee H. Kratom-induced cholestatic liver injury mimicking anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cholangitis: a case report and review of literature. Gastroenterol. Res. (2019) 12:211–5. 10.14740/gr1204 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

37. Fernandes CT, Iqbal U, Tighe SP, Ahmed A. Kratom-induced cholestatic liver injury and its conservative management. J. Investig. Med. High Impact Case Rep. (2019) 7:2324709619836138. 10.1177/2324709619836138 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

38. Osborne CS, Overstreet AN, Rockey DC, Schreiner AD. Drug-induced liver injury caused by Kratom use as an alternative pain treatment amid an ongoing opioid epidemic. J. Investig. Med. High Impact Case Rep. (2019) 7:2324709619826167. 10.1177/2324709619826167 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

39. Schimmel J, Dart RC. Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) liver injury: a comprehensive review. Drugs. (2020) 80:263–83. 10.1007/s40265-019-01242-6 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

40. Nelsen JL, Lapoint J, Hodgman MJ, Aldous KM. Seizure and coma following kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure. Toxicol. Obs. (2010) 6:424–6. 10.1007/s13181-010-0079-5 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

41. Afzal H, Esang M, Rahman S. A case of kratom-induced Seizures. Cureus. (2020) 12:e6588. 10.7759/cureus.6588 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

42. Labryer L, Sharma R, Chaudhari KS, Talsania M, Scofield RH. Kratom, an emerging drug of abuse, raises prolactin and causes secondary hypogonadism: case report. J. Investig. Med. High Impact Case Rep. (2018) 6:2324709618765022. 10.1177/2324709618765022 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

43. Sheleg SV, Collins GB. A coincidence of addiction to “kratom” and severe primary hypothyroidism. J. Addict. Med. (2011) 5:300–1. 10.1097/ADM.0b013e318221fbfa [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

44. Castillo A, Payne JD, Nugent K. Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome after kratom ingestion. Bayl. Univ. Med. Cent. Proc. (2017) 30:355–7. 10.1080/08998280.2017.11929647 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

45. Domingo O, Roider G, Stöver A, Graw M, Musshoff F, Sachs H, et al. . Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities. Forensic Sci. Int. (2017) 271:e1–7. 10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.12.020 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

46. Overbeek DL, Abraham J, Munzer BW. Kratom (Mitragynine) ingestion requiring naloxone reversal. Clin. Pract. Cases Emerg. Med. (2019) 3:24–6. 10.5811/cpcem.2018.11.40588 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

47. Wong A, Mun M. A case of kratom overdose in a pediatric patient. Case Rep. Psychiatr. (2020) 2020:8818095. 10.1155/2020/8818095 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

48. Neerman MF, Frost RE, Deking J. A drug fatality involving kratom. J. Forensic Sci. (2013) 58(Suppl 1):S278–9. 10.1111/1556-4029.12009 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

49. Aggarwal G, Robertson E, Mckinlay J, Walter E. Death from kratom toxicity and the possible role of intralipid. J. Intensive Care Soc. (2018) 19:61–3. 10.1177/1751143717712652 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

50. Gershman K, Timm K, Frank M, Lampi L, Melamed J, Gerona R, et al. . Deaths in Colorado attributed to kratom. N. Engl. J. Med. (2019) 380:97–8. 10.1056/NEJMc1811055 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

51. Matson M, Schenk N. Fatality of 33-year-old man involving kratom toxicity. J. Forensic Sci. (2019) 64:1933–5. 10.1111/1556-4029.14082 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

52. Arndt T, Claussen U, Güssregen B, Schröfel S, Stürzer B, Werle A, et al. . Kratom alkaloids and O-desmethyltramadol in urine of a “Krypton” herbal mixture consumer. Forensic Sci Int. (2011) 208:47–52. 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.10.025 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

53. Galbis-Reig D. A case report of kratom addiction and withdrawal. WMJ. (2016) 115:49–52. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

54. Khazaeli A, Jerry JM, Vazirian M. Treatment of kratom withdrawal and addiction with buprenorphine. J. Addict Med. (2018) 12:493–5. 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000435 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

55. Bowe A, Kerr PL. A complex case of kratom dependence, depression, and chronic pain in opioid use disorder: effects of buprenorphine in clinical management. J Psychoactive Drugs. (2020) 17:1–6. 10.1080/02791072.2020.1773586 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

56. Mackay L, Abrahams R. Novel case of maternal and neonatal kratom dependence and withdrawal. Can. Fam. Physician. (2018) 64:121–2. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

57. Davidson L, Rawat M, Stojanovski S, Chandrasekharan P. Natural drugs, not so natural effects: Neonatal abstinence syndrome secondary to ‘kratom’. J. Neonatal. Perinatal. Med. (2019) 12:109–12. 10.3233/NPM-1863 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

58. Singh D, Narayanan S, Müller CP, Swogger MT, Rahim AA, Leong Bin Abdullah MFI, et al. . Severity of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) psychological withdrawal symptoms. J. Psychoactive Drugs. (2018) 50:445–450. 10.1080/02791072.2018.1511879 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

59. Singh D, Narayanan S, Vicknasingam BK, Prozialeck WC, Ramanathan S, Zainal H, et al. . Severity of pain and sleep problems during kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) cessation among regular kratom users. J. Psychoactive Drugs. (2018) 50:266–74. 10.1080/02791072.2018.1443234 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

60. Müller E, Hillemacher T, Müller CP. Kratom instrumentalization for severe pain self-treatment resulting in addiction - a case report of acute and chronic subjective effects. Heliyon. (2020) 6:e04507 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04507 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

61. Saref A, Suraya S, Singh D, Grundmann O, Narayanan S, Swogger MT, et al. . Self-reported prevalence and severity of opioid and kratom (Mitragyna speciosa korth.) side effects. J. Ethnopharmacol. (2019) 238:111876. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.111876 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

62. Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR, Lamar PC, Plotkin BJ, Sigar IM, Grundmann O, et al. . Evaluation of the mitragynine content, levels of toxic metals and the presence of microbes in kratom products purchased in the western suburbs of Chicago. Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health. (2020) 17:5512. 10.3390/ijerph17155512 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

63. Eastlack SC, Cornett EM, Kaye AD. Kratom-pharmacology, clinical implications, and outlook: a comprehensive review. Pain Ther. (2020) 9:55–69. 10.1007/s40122-020-00151-x [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

64. Matsumoto K, Hatori Y, Murayama T, Tashima K, Wongseripipatana S, Misawa K, et al. . Involvement of mu-opioid receptors in antinociception and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, isolated from Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) 549:63–70. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.08.013 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

65. Matsumoto K, Mizowaki M, Suchitra T, Murakami Y, Takayama H, Sakai S, et al. . Central antinociceptive effects of mitragynine in mice: contribution of descending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) 317:75–81. 10.1016/S0014-2999(96)00714-5 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

66. Boyer EW, Babu KM, Adkins JE, McCurdy CR, Halpern JH. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth). Addiction. (2008) 103:1048–50. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02209.x [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

67. Chin KY, Mark-Lee WF. A review on the antinociceptive effects of Mitragyna speciosa and its derivatives on animal model. Curr. Drug Targets. (2018) 19:1359–65. 10.2174/1389450118666170925154025 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

68. Wilson LL, Harris HM, Eans SO, Brice-Tutt A, et al. . Lyophilized kratom tea as a therapeutic option for opioid dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2020) 216:108310. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108310 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

69. Singh D, Müller CP, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Vicknasingam BK, Avery B, et al. . Evaluating the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) users in Malaysia. J. Ethnopharmacol. (2018) 214:197–206. 10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.017 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

  1. 2018 lexus sc430 price
  2. Salvage license pa
  3. Samsung computer power cord
  4. Skyrim invisibility spell book

Kratom Benefits Are More Important Than Ever

A lot is going on right now in the world of health & wellness and taking care of your body is starting to feel more important than ever before. Research shows there are a lot of things you can be doing to keep yourself healthy- from getting enough rest, to drinking plenty of water, washing your hands more often, and trying not to touch your face. 

But could kratom have some hidden benefits as well? Let’s take a look.


What Is Kratom?

Kratom, aka Mitragyna speciosa, is a tree-like plant that grows in Southeast Asia. Kratom powder is made from the leaves of kratom plants and has become popular in the U.S. thanks to the benefits that people experience after taking it. 

But how does kratom work? How is it possible for a plant to be so helpful?

As it turns out, the answer is:

Kratom Alkaloids

First off, what is an alkaloid? Alkaloids are organic compounds that contain nitrogen and are found in plants. Alkaloids tend to have strong physiological effects in humans and therefore are often used as drugs or poisons. Nicotine, caffeine, and morphine are all alkaloids, to name a few. 

What about kratom alkaloids? 

The benefits of kratom come from alkaloids present in kratom leaves. These alkaloids are what allow kratom to have such a wide range of effects- each type of kratom has different effects thanks to different levels of alkaloids present. So for example, a strain of kratom known for providing energy will have different levels of alkaloids than a kratom strain known for being relaxing. 

The alkaloids present in kratom aren’t just responsible for the most noticeable effects of taking kratom- energy, focus, relief from discomfort, or improving sleep- there’s also a whole lot of lesser-known benefits to taking kratom, and right now they may be more important than ever!

Why Kratom Alkaloids Matter Right Now

Some of the major alkaloids present in kratom (mitragynine and paynantheine, among others) are very similar to chloroquine, an alkaloid currently being researched in Wuhan, China for its effectiveness against COVID-19. 

That’s right. It’s starting to look like alkaloids similar to those found in kratom may be more useful than we knew. While it is too early to say definitively whether or not chloroquine or kratom alkaloids could be beneficial when it comes to the current pandemic, it’s certainly interesting to note that scientists are looking into it. 

But even if kratom and its related alkaloids aren’t as beneficial as researchers might hope, there is quite a lot of research that shows how helpful kratom can be for health in general. Kratom has been shown in studies to have immune-boosting capabilities!

Kratom & Your Immune System

Research on other kratom alkaloids has found immunostimulating, antimicrobial, and antioxidant benefits among others. 

Here are some kratom alkaloids and what research has found about their uses/benefits:

(While kratom has many benefits and we believe strongly in plant-based-power, this blog is meant to be informative and should not be taken as medical advice. If you’re feeling sick, please consult a doctor.)


Isomitraphylline- possible immunostimulant 

Isorhynchophylline- possible immunostimulant

Epicatechin- antioxidant (1), antibacterial (2), antiviral (3)

Isopteropodine- antimicrobial (4), possible immunostimulant 


There are quite a few more alkaloids present in kratom, but these guys are the ones with the most relevant benefits that have been discovered so far! 

With the possible combination of antimicrobial, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunostimulant alkaloids all in one plant, research is showing us just how beneficial kratom may be for overall health! And in a time where taking care of your body is more important than ever, we think we may be adding kratom into our routine more often than usual. 

Kratom is not medicine and should not be used as such, but we think it’s important to consider all the things you could be doing to keep yourself healthy & well. Do not substitute kratom for other preventative measures.

Buy Green Malaysian Kratom

The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All information presented here is not meant as a substitute for or alternative to information from health care practitioners. Please consult your health care professional about potential interactions or other possible complications before using any product. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires this notice.


‘China speeds up clinical trials for COVID-19 cure’ The Star


1. ‘Flavonoids as Antioxidants’


2. ‘Antibacterial effect of kaempferol and (−)-epicatechin on Helicobacter pylori’


3. ‘Detection of the antiviral activity of epicatechin isolated from Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae) against Mayaro virus based on protein C homology modelling and virtual screening.’


4. ‘Antimicrobial Activity of Isopteropodine’


Mom bought kvass and non-alcoholic beer and we went. We went in, undressed. Mom was wearing a new swimsuit. She was already wearing it on the local beach.

Antiviral kratom

I entered, looked around, the toilet is combined with the bathroom - There is a lot of space, that's good. Leonid turned to go out, but I stopped him: - Don't go, stay with me, I'm afraid of one -. - If you disgust, then you can go out - I said, lifting my skirt.

Consumer Reports: The dangers of kratom supplements

Issyk-Kul mountain lake. The water shimmered with bright colors, playing in the sun. The hot sun blazed mercilessly. Sanya sat next to me at the wheel of his Defender and monotonously spoke about the advantages of his diesel engine over gasoline. For several years he was fond of jeeps, went to various competitions, constantly altered something in his iron horse and considered himself one of the adherents.

Now discussing:

Mustache in front of you. No, it is roaring to itself, and a mustache. Still: the thirteenth carriage, the thirteenth compartment.

17 18 19 20 21