Opposite word of prey

Opposite word of prey DEFAULT

Opposite (semantics)

Linguistic concept

In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship. For example, something that is long entails that it is not short. It is referred to as a 'binary' relationship because there are two members in a set of opposites. The relationship between opposites is known as opposition. A member of a pair of opposites can generally be determined by the question What is the opposite of &#;X&#;?

The term antonym (and the related antonymy) is commonly taken to be synonymous with opposite, but antonym also has other more restricted meanings. Graded (or gradable) antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite and which lie on a continuous spectrum (hot, cold). Complementary antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite but whose meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum (push, pull). Relational antonyms are word pairs where opposite makes sense only in the context of the relationship between the two meanings (teacher, pupil). These more restricted meanings may not apply in all scholarly contexts, with Lyons (, ) defining antonym to mean gradable antonyms, and Crystal () warning that antonymy and antonym should be regarded with care.

General discussion[edit]

Opposition is a semantic relation in which one word has a sense or meaning that negates or is, in the sense of scale, distant from a related word. Other words are capable of being opposed, but the language in question has an accidental gap in its lexicon. For example, the word devout lacks a lexical opposite, but it is fairly easy to conceptualize a parameter of devoutness where devout lies at the positive pole with a missing member at the negative pole. Opposites of such words can nevertheless sometimes be formed with the prefixes un- or non-, with varying degrees of naturalness. For example, the word undevout appears in Webster's dictionary of , while the pattern of non-person could conceivably be extended to non-platypus. Conversely, some words appear to be a prefixed form of an opposite, but the opposite term does not exist, such as inept, which appears to be in- + *ept; such a word is known as an unpaired word.

Opposites may be viewed as a special type of incompatibility.[1] Words that are incompatible create the following type of entailment (where X is a given word and Y is a different word incompatible with word X):[2]

sentence A is &#;X&#; &#;entails&#; sentence A is not &#;Y&#;[3]

An example of an incompatible pair of words is cat&#;: dog:

It's a cat &#;entails&#; It's not a dog[4]

This incompatibility is also found in the opposite pairs fast&#;: slow and stationary&#;: moving, as can be seen below:

It's fast &#;entails&#; It's not slow[5]

It's stationary &#;entails&#; It's not moving

Cruse () identifies some basic characteristics of opposites:

  • binarity, the occurrence of opposites as a lexical pair
  • inherentness, whether the relationship may be presumed implicitly
  • patency, the quality of how obvious a pair is

Some planned languages abundantly use such devices to reduce vocabulary multiplication. Esperanto has mal- (compare bona = "good" and malbona = "bad"), Damin has kuri- (tjitjuu "small", kuritjitjuu "large") and Newspeak has un- (as in ungood, "bad").

Some classes of opposites include:

  • antipodals, pairs of words which describe opposite ends of some axis, either literal (such as "left" and "right," "up" and "down," "east" and "west") or figurative or abstract (such as "first" and "last," "beginning" and "end," "entry" and "exit")
  • disjoint opposites (or "incompatibles"), members of a set which are mutually exclusive but which leave a lexical gap unfilled, such as "red" and "blue," "one" and "ten," or "monday" and "friday."
  • reversives, pairs of verbs which denote opposing processes, in which one is the reverse of the other. They are (or may be) performed by the same or similar subject(s) without requiring an object of the verbs, such as "rise" and "fall," "accelerate" and "decelerate," or "shrink" and "grow."
  • converses (or relational opposites or relational antonyms), pairs in which one describes a relationship between two objects and the other describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed, such as parent and child, teacher and student, or buy and sell.
  • overlapping antonyms, a pair of comparatives in which one, but not the other, implies the positive:
    • An example is "better" and "worse." The sentence "x is better than y" does not imply that x is good, but "x is worse than y" implies that x is bad. Other examples are "faster" and "slower" ("fast" is implied but not "slow") and "dirtier" and "cleaner" ("dirty" is implied but not "clean"). The relationship between overlapping antonyms is often not inherent, but arises from the way they are interpreted most generally in a language. There is no inherent reason that an item be presumed to be bad when it is compared to another as being worse (it could be "less good"), but English speakers have combined the meaning semantically to it over the development of the language.

Types of antonyms[edit]

An antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings. Each word in the pair is the antithesis of the other. A word may have more than one antonym. There are three categories of antonyms identified by the nature of the relationship between the opposed meanings. Where the two words have definitions that lie on a continuous spectrum of meaning, they are gradable antonyms. Where the meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum and the words have no other lexical relationship, they are complementary antonyms. Where the two meanings are opposite only within the context of their relationship, they are relational antonyms.

Gradable antonyms[edit]

A gradable antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings where the two meanings lie on a continuous spectrum. Temperature is such a continuous spectrum so hot and cold, two meanings on opposite ends of the spectrum, are gradable antonyms. Other examples include: heavy&#;: light, fat&#;: skinny, dark&#;: light, young&#;: old, early&#;: late, empty&#;: full, dull&#;: interesting.

Complementary antonyms[edit]

A complementary antonym, sometimes called a binary or contradictory antonym (Aarts, Chalker & Weiner ), is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings, where the two meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum. There is no continuous spectrum between odd and even but they are opposite in meaning and are therefore complementary antonyms. Other examples include: mortal&#;: immortal, exit&#;: entrance, exhale&#;: inhale, occupied&#;: vacant.

Relational antonyms[edit]

A relational antonym is one of a pair of words that refer to a relationship from opposite points of view. There is no lexical opposite of teacher, but teacher and pupil are opposite within the context of their relationship. This makes them relational antonyms. Other examples include: husband&#;: wife, doctor&#;: patient, predator&#;: prey, teach&#;: learn, servant&#;: master, come&#;: go, parent&#;: child.

Auto-antonyms[edit]

An auto-antonym is a word that can have opposite meanings in different contexts or under separate definitions:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Incompatibility can be compared to exclusive disjunction in logic.
  2. ^There are four types of entailment useful to lexical semantics:
    • unilateral entailment: It's a fish unilaterally entails It's an animal. (It is unilateral, i.e. one-directional, because It's an animal does not entail It's a fish since it could be a dog or a cat or some other animal.)
    • logical equivalence (or multilateral entailment): The party commenced at midnight entails The party began at midnight AND The party began at midnight also entails The party commenced since both cannot be simultaneously true. On the Aristotelian square of opposition, the A and E type propositions ('All As are Bs' and 'No As are Bs', respectively) are contraries of each other. Propositions that cannot be simultaneously false (e.g. 'Something is red' and 'Something is not red') are said to be subcontraries.
    • contradiction: It's dead entails It's not alive AND It's not alive entails It's dead AND It's alive entails It's not dead AND It's not dead entails It's alive. It's dead and It's alive are said to be in a contradictory relation.
  3. ^Stated differently, if the proposition expressed by the sentence A is &#;X&#; is TRUE, then the proposition expressed by the sentence A is not &#;Y&#; is also TRUE.
  4. ^It is assumed here that it has the same referent.
  5. ^It is also assumed here the reference point of comparison for these adjectives remains the same in both sentences. For example, a rabbit might be fast compared to turtle but slow compared to a sport car. It is essential when determining the relationships between the lexical meaning of words to keep the situational context identical.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aarts, Bas; Chalker, Sylvia; Weiner, Edmund (), The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, Oxford University Press, p.&#;80, ISBN&#;
  • Crystal, David. (). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (5th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Cruse, D. Alan. (). Lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cruse, D. Alan. (). Antonymy revisited: Some thoughts on the relationship between words and concepts. In A. J. Lehrer & E. F. Kittay (Eds.), Frames, fields, and contrasts: New essays in semantic and lexical organization (pp.&#;–). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Cruse, D. Alan. (). Paradigmatic relations of exclusion and opposition II: Reversivity. In D. A. Cruse, F. Hundsnurscher, M. Job, & P.-R. Lutzeier (Eds.), Lexikologie: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Natur und Struktur von Wörtern und Wortschätzen: Lexicology: An international handbook on the nature and structure of words and vocabularies (Vol. 1, pp.&#;–). Berlin: De Gruyter.
  • Cruse, D. Alan. (). Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cruse, D. Alan; & Togia, Pagona. (). Towards a cognitive model of antonymy. Journal of Lexicology1,
  • Davies, M. () ‘The Attraction of Opposites: The ideological function of conventional and created oppositions in the construction of in-groups and out-groups in news texts’, in Jeffries, L., McIntyre, D. and Bousfield, D. (eds) Stylistics and Social Cognition, pp.&#;79–
  • Davies, M. () Oppositions and Ideology in News Discourse. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  • Jeffries, L. (, forthcoming) Opposition in Discourse: The Construction of Oppositional Meaning London: Continuum.
  • Jones, S. (), Antonymy: A Corpus-based perspective London and New York: Routledge.
  • Lehrer, Adrienne J. (). Markedness and antonymy. Journal of Linguistics, 21,
  • Lehrer, Adrienne J. (). Paradigmatic relations of exclusion and opposition I: Gradable antonymy and complementarity. In D. A. Cruse, F. Hundsnurscher, M. Job, & P.-R. Lutzeier (Eds.), Lexikologie: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Natur und Struktur von Wörtern und Wortschätzen: Lexicology: An international handbook on the nature and structure of words and vocabularies (Vol. 1, pp.&#;–). Berlin: De Gruyter.
  • Lehrer, Adrienne J.; & Lehrer, Keith. (). Antonymy. Linguistics and Philosophy, 5,
  • Lyons, John. (). Structural semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lyons, John. (). Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lyons, John. (). Semantics (Vol. 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mettinger, Arthur. (). Aspects of semantic opposition in English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Murphy, M. Lynne. (). Semantic relations and the lexicon: Antonymy, synonymy, and other paradigms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Palmer, F. R. (). Semantics: A new outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Saeed, John I. (). Semantics (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opposite_(semantics)

prey - Meaning in English

Word Forms / Inflections

preys(noun plural)
preyed(verb past tense)
preying(verb present participle)
preys(verb present tense)

Definitions and Meaning of prey in English

prey

noun
  1. animal hunted or caught for food
    Synonyms : quarry
  2. a person who is the aim of an attack (especially a victim of ridicule or exploitation) by some hostile person or influence
    Synonyms : fair game, quarry, targetExamples
    - everyone was fair game
    - he fell prey to muggers
    - the target of a manhunt
verb
  1. prey on or hunt for
    Synonyms : predate, ravenExample
    - These mammals predate certain eggs
  2. profit from in an exploitatory manner
    Synonyms : feedExample
    - He feeds on her insecurity

Synonyms of prey

quarry, fair game, target, predate, raven, feed

Description

Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation and parasitoidism. It is distinct from scavenging on dead prey, though many predators also scavenge; it overlaps with herbivory, as seed predators and destructive frugivores are predators.

Also see "Predation" on Wikipedia.
Sours: https://www.shabdkosh.com/dictionary/telugu-english/prey/prey-meaning-in-english
  1. Teddy bear pig
  2. Ufc personal trainer salary
  3. Grand junction honda dealership
  4. The vikings dvd set

What are 2 synonyms for prey?

What are 2 synonyms for prey?

prey

  • beast,
  • brute,
  • creature,
  • critter.

Is prey synonym of victim?

In this page you can discover 57 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for victim, like: prey, sufferer, hunted, dupe, martyr, pigeon, wretch, woman, gudgeon, quarry; game and offering.

What is opposite word of prey?

prey. Antonyms: earnings, hues, rights. Synonyms: spoil, booty, plunder, rapine, pillage, victim, seizure, loot.

What is the person who hurt the victim called?

▲ Opposite of a person harmed or killed as a result of an unfortunate event or action. assailant. antagonist. perpetrator.

What does assailant mean?

: a person who attacks someone violently an assault by an unknown assailant She could identify the assailant and his two accomplices, and she wanted to press charges.—

What type of word is attacked?

verb &#; Word Type

What is an enemy attack?

Enemy attack means any attack or series of attacks by a power hostile to the United States which causes or may cause death, injury or substantial damage to the people and property in the United States by sabotage, or by the use of bombs, missiles or shells, or any other weapons of conventional, atomic, radiological.

What the enemy sends after you shows what&#;s in you?

See what the enemy sins after you shows you what&#;s in you? That&#;s why you&#;ve been going through so much hell because hell is nervous about you reaching your destiny. That&#;s why you&#;ve been going through so much hell because hell is nervous it.

What are the tactics of the enemy?

The Enemy&#;s Tactics

  • The Crafty Enemy. Whether we acknowledge it or not, the enemy is full of tactics to distract us from obeying God.
  • The Persistent Enemy. The enemy is also a master of persistence.
  • By knowing and believing His word. Jesus overcame the enemy by knowing God&#;s word.
  • By destroying false perceptions.
  • By praying.

Is Microsoft tied to Google?

When it comes to Android Enterprise, Microsoft and Google work closely together on many levels to deliver one of the best mobility solutions today. While a collaboration between Microsoft and Google may be surprising, we are both focused on making our mutual customers successful and productive on Android devices.

Sours: https://boardgamestips.com/users-questions/what-aresynonyms-for-prey/

prey

But even some of these so-called epidemics appear to be due to parasitic worms, which have from some cause, possibly in part through facility of diffusion amongst the crowded animals, been disproportionably favoured: and here comes in a sort of struggle between the parasite and its prey.

Hence, if certain insectivorous birds (whose numbers are probably regulated by hawks or beasts of prey) were to increase in Paraguay, the flies would decrease--then cattle and horses would become feral, and this would certainly greatly alter (as indeed I have observed in parts of South America) the vegetation: this again would largely affect the insects; and this, as we just have seen in Staffordshire, the insectivorous birds, and so onwards in ever-increasing circles of complexity.

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The ape-man had no knife, but nature had equipped him with the means of tearing his food from the quivering flank of his prey, and gleaming teeth sank into the succulent flesh while the raging lion looked on from below as another enjoyed the dinner that he had thought already his.

Occasionally he smiled as he recalled some friend who might even at the moment be sitting placid and immaculate within the precincts of his select Parisian club--just as Tarzan had sat but a few months before; and then he would stop, as though turned suddenly to stone as the gentle breeze carried to his trained nostrils the scent of some new prey or a formidable enemy.

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"If it be The Black Wolf," whispered Father Claude to the boy, "no worse fate could befall us for he preys ever upon the clergy, and when drunk as he now is, he murders his victims.

Neither side knew which way his power might be turned, for Norman of Torn had preyed almost equally upon royalist and insurgent.

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Onward they went, the scent of the lion and his preybecoming stronger and stronger.

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With a loud hiss the creature abandoned its preyto turn upon me, but the spear, imbedded in its throat, prevented it from seizing me though it came near to overturning the skiff in its mad efforts to reach me.

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Tarzan must act quickly or his preywould be gone; but Tarzan's life training left so little space between decision and action when an emergency confronted him that there was not even room for the shadow of a thought between.

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Picking our way carefully we threaded a winding path across the chamber, the great banths sniffing hungrily at the tempting preyspread before them in such tantalizing and defenceless profusion.

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During what seemed hours to her tense nerves, Jane Clayton continued these tactics, and still the lion fed on in apparent unconsciousness that his second preywas escaping him.

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It is not a nice way to die--alone, with one's hands fast bound, beneath the fangs and talons of a beast of prey. No, it is not a nice way to die, not a pretty way.

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But only for a moment they hesitated, and then with one accord they again took up their fantastic advance upon their prey; but even then a sudden crashing in the jungle behind them brought them once more to a halt, and as they turned to look in the direction of this new noise there broke upon their startled visions a sight that may well have frozen the blood of braver men than the Wagambi.

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I suppose it is too insignificant to be noticed by the great Epeira, and is therefore allowed to preyon the minute insects, which, adhering to the lines, would otherwise be wasted.

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It was within half-an-hour of sunset when we entered the wood, and a little after sunset when we came into the plain: we met with nothing in the first wood, except that in a little plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over, we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and had it in view; they took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments.

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Of opposite prey word

I…, he stammered, quietly, I will listen to you. - No not like this. Repeat: I am your slave.

Opposite words in English - opposite words for preschoolers - Educational video - Antonym for kids

With cream. - Maybe with brandy. For acquaintance. And for the gift found so unexpectedly, because it is so rare. Okay.

You will also like:

Not. He's just unpleasant. And you like that he is unpleasant. And that is where the pleasure is for you.



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