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Linking Routers

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Wiki Path: DD-WRT Wiki Main / Tutorials / Linking Routers
See also: Category:Linking Routers


This tutorial discusses various alternatives for linking routers to create wireless and/or wired networks.

[edit] Alternative Modes

These are various ways to connect two or more routers (or a modem), besides the default gateway router with wireless access points. For a visual comparison between these modes, see Router Mode Comparison Table.

  • WDS is the preferred mode to extend a wired network using wireless with two or more routers.

[edit] Access Point / Switch

Extend the Wireless access area using more routers, with WIRED connections between routers, or turn a wired port on an existing network into a Wireless Access Point. All computers will be on the same network segment, and will be able to see one another in Windows Network. This works with all devices with LAN ports, and does not require dd-wrt to be installed.

  • Wireless Access Point - Extend Wi-Fi & LAN (Requires physical ethernet connection between routers)
  • Switch - Similar config as WAP, but radio disabled (accepts only wired connections)

[edit] Repeater / Repeater Bridge

Extend the Wireless access area using a second router WIRELESSLY connected to the primary. The secondary router must have dd-wrt installed, but the primary does not matter.

Note: There is no repeater mode option on Qualcomm/Atheros devices. As described in their wiki, Repeater or Repeater Bridge are set up as Client or Client Bridge mode with an added VAP.

  • Repeater Bridge - A wireless repeater with DHCP & NAT disabled, clients on same subnet as host AP (primary router). That is, all computers can see one another in Windows Network.
  • Repeater - A wireless repeater with DHCP & NAT enabled, clients on different subnet from host AP (primary router). Computers connected to one router can not see computers connected to other routers in Windows Network.
  • Universal Wireless Repeater - [obsolete] Uses a program/script called AutoAP to keep a connection to the nearest/best host AP.

[edit] Client / Client Bridge

Connect two wired networks using a WiFi link (WIRELESS connection between two routers). The secondary router must have dd-wrt installed; the primary router does not need to have dd-wrt.

  • Client Bridged - Join two wired networks by two Wireless routers building a bridge. All computers can see one another in Windows Network.
  • Client Mode - Join two wired networks by two Wireless routers (unbridged). Computers on one wired network can not see computers on other wired network in Windows Network.

[edit] WDS

Extend the Wireless access area using more routers connected WIRELESSLY. WDS is a mesh network. Routers must almost always have the SAME chipset type for WDS to work, and any non dd-wrt routers must be WDS compatible. Using identical routers is best, but not always necessary if all devices have the same chipset types. (All Broadcom or all Atheros etc)

[edit] OLSR

Extend the Wireless access area using more routers. Extra routers do not need any wired connections to each other. Use several ISP (Internet) connections. OLSR is a mesh network.

[edit] Comparisons

[edit] Resources

  • Whitepaper on the differences and scenarios for client bridges, repeaters, WDS, and mesh networks.

Categories: Basic tutorials | Linking Routers | Routing | Wlan

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Linking_Routers

Client Mode

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Wiki Path: DD-WRT Wiki Main / Tutorials / Linking Routers / Client Mode



The secondary (client) router is unbridged in a different subnet (with NAT), while a Client Bridge is the same subnet as the host.

[edit]Introduction

This mode is NOT for WIRED connections between two routers, like an Access Point. It is a wireless connection between two routers only, usually to the primary gateway router. A Client Mode router connects to a Wireless Access Point (WAP) wireless connection as the WAN interface, and shares the internet connection only to the LAN ports, or a separate WAP for multi-radio routers. It is not seen as a WAP, nor accepts wireless connections by other client devices.

The primary (host) router is not required to be running DD-WRT firmware. The primary and secondary (DD-WRT Client Mode) routers must be on separate subnets, and NAT is used between them. Thus, when port forwarding is needed it must be configured at both routers - not just on the host router.

A Client Mode router uses its own DHCP server for IP Address, Gateway, and DNS server to connected devices. To have computers connected to both routers (main and secondary) and co-exist in the same subnet, set up DD-WRT as a Client Bridge, Repeater Bridge or use WDS. Further explanation of bridging modes is at Linking Routers.

  • If using a multi-band router, do not set more than one band to CB. The other radio(s) would normally be set as AP. For example, the 2.4GHz radio can a CB while the 5GHz is an AP, or vice versa.

[edit]Client Mode Setup

Ensure the secondary client router is on a different subnet than the primary host router. Thus, if the primary router IP address is 192.168.A.x, you need to set the client router to an IP of 192.168.B.x. For example, if the host router uses 192.168.1.1, configure your client router to e.g. 192.168.2.x.

  1. Recommended: reset the router
  2. Connect a cable from your computer to the LAN port on your router.
  3. Set your computer to a static IP address (e.g. 192.168.1.7 subnet 255.255.255.0)
  4. Open a web browser and connect to 192.168.1.1 to view the DD-WRT GUI.
  5. Set a username and password, if not asked for this, do a proper reset
  6. Go to Wireless->Wireless Security and enter the Security Mode and other information same as Primary
  7. Hit SAVE (not apply)
  8. Go to the Wireless->Basic Settings and change the Wireless Mode to "Client"
  9. Set the Wireless Network Name (SSID) to exactly match the primary router. Check spelling and case!
    • If multiple routers broadcast the same SSID, to connect to a specific one (i.e. the primary router, instead of a repeater), enable MAC Filtering on the Wireless Tab, and add the specific device's MAC Address.
    • MAC Address can be found on the "Site Survey" page, linked from the Wireless tab in Status
  10. (Optional) If available, in Wireless tab (or under Advanced), set (or disable) the Ack Timing in meters
  11. Hit SAVE (not apply)
  12. Go to Setup->Basic Setup and change Connection Type to Static IP or "Automatic Configuration - DHCP"
    • Static IP allows easier access remote GUI, SSH, or telnet access is enabled under Administration
    • If the client router is externally managed (e.g. in a college dorm), go to Setup->Basic Setup, set the WAN port protocol as needed for the AP (usually Static, DHCP, or PPPoE), and enter info provided by your ISP. This is the setting that is bonded to the wireless interface.
    • This is what a computer (wired or wireless) connected to the ROUTER would use to gain access to the network, not to be confused with the settings required to gain access to the WAN by the ROUTER.
    • The device should be in GATEWAY mode (not ROUTER), otherwise Masquerade/NAT does not happen.
  13. In Network Setup set the Local IP Address to a different subnet from the Primary (e.g. 192.168.2.1)
  14. (Optional) Set your local DNS to the IP address of your client router (same as the previous step).
  15. (Optional) Set Static DNS servers in the Network Address Server Settings section if your WAN type does not provide them or you want to use different ones than the AP provides.
  16. (Recommended) Change your Time Zone and DST to match where you are.
  17. (Optional) Set a "Server IP/Name" in Time Setting section for NTP (blank uses a hidden default server)
  18. Hit SAVE (not Apply)
  19. (Optional) In Security->Firewall, disable SPI Firewall if security between AP & Client is not needed
  20. Hit Apply, then set the computer back to auto IP and DNS if needed (replug the LAN cable if not working)
  21. The Client router should connect to the AP within a minute, otherwise unplug the router for 30 sec
  22. Once connected and working, configure as needed (e.g. Virtual Interface for wireless connection)

[edit]Client Restrictions

To allow internet access but prevent 192.168.1.x clients from seeing each other on br0, use this firewall script (iptables):

iptables -I FORWARD -i br0 -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j DROP

[edit]Troubleshooting

If the preceding instructions do not work, it is usually an encryption or password problem. Disable encryption on the primary router and retry the setup. Using proper encryption and the correct case-sensitive password is key. Do a reset and start over. Note: WPA2-AES (aka CCMP) is required for 802.11N (and newer) devices.

Categories: Wlan | Linking Routers

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Client_Mode_Wireless
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Wireless access point

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Wiki Path: DD-WRT Wiki Main / Tutorials / Linking Routers / Wireless Access Point


[edit]Introduction

For a large network where the DD-WRT router does not provide suitable network core, Wireless Access Point (WAP or just 'AP') allows wireless clients to be a part of the larger network. In this case, clients normally get DHCP configuration from the gateway or some other DHCP server, and could be accessed by other clients on the network (if allowed).

Linking routers by Ethernet cables does not require DD-WRT on any router. However, some more advanced settings are available in DD-WRT. As an example, some colleges still allow students to have their own WAP. They require that the WAPs not lease private IP addresses (like a gateway configuration with DHCP/NAT) because it makes it difficult to track down which client is causing problems (e.g. virus infections, trojans, worms, etc.)

Vendors such as Linksys typically charge more for devices which work as standalone WAPs because routers are typically used by home users and WAPs are more popular for businesses. With DD-WRT you can buy a device marketed as a router and use it as a WAP.

[edit]Secondary Router on a Separate Subnet

  • This is simply a gateway router that is downstream of a primary gateway router.

If you want a secondary router to be on a separate subnet from the primary, just hard reset the router and set the router's IP to, e.g., 192.168.5.1 on the basic setup page. Then set security and SSID on the Wireless tab, hit Save then Apply, and finally plug the LAN cable from your primary to the WAN of the second router.

If you wish to be able to access your secondary router from devices on your primary LAN, enable Web GUI management in the Remote Access section of the Administration/Management page. You should then be able to access the secondary router by typing in its WAN IP. Setting up a static lease for the second router's WAN interface in Services on the first router will allow you to always know where the second one is to access it. This is the usual router/gateway mode, which is NOT the main goal of this Wiki.

[edit]Access Point (AP) instructions

A secondary router on the same subnet, so all wireless and wired network devices can access each other.

[edit]Simple Version (Same Subnet)

On the secondary access point router:

  • Do a hard reset
  • Disable DHCP and set the wireless channel different from the other router(s)
  • Set the IP address to 192.168.1.2 (or any IP outside the gateway DHCP range that does not collide with the gateway nor any other static devices)
  • Connect a LAN port from the Access Point to a LAN port on the primary router

[edit]Normal Version (Same Subnet)

Side note-If you want to have clients on one router isolated from those on the main router, you need to use iptables rules to do this fully. However, following the above "Separate Subnet" instructions will achieve this.

Now, the main how to: Pay special attention to the Review section of this article, especially if you are using an older version.

  1. Hard reset the router to DD-WRT default settings
  2. Connect to the router @ http://192.168.1.1
    • Note: If this router is wired to another router, there may be conflicts (both routers could have the same IP address). For the time being, disconnect this router from the main one.
  3. Open the Setup -> Basic Setup tab
    • WAN Connection Type: Disabled
    • Local IP Address: e.g. 192.168.1.2 (same subnet as primary router but outside the DHCP range)
    • Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 (unless you know what you're doing)
    • DHCP Server: Disable (do not use DHCP Forwarder), also uncheck DNSmasq options
    • Gateway: IP address of primary router
    • (Optional) Local DNS: IP address of primary router / local DNS server
    • (Optional) Assign WAN Port to Switch (visible when WAN Connection Type is Disabled)
      • NOTE: Builds 46788 and later do not have this feature; there are mixed reports on whether or not the WAN port is usable.
      • This allows connection to the router's default address after a reset, to avoid colliding with the LAN
    • (Recommended) NTP Client: Enable Help
    • Click Save
  4. Open the Setup -> Advanced Routing tab
    • (Recommended) Change operating mode to: Router, then Save
  5. Open the Wireless -> Basic Settings tab
    • Set the Wireless Network Name (SSID) as desired
    • (Optional) Sensitivity Range: The max distance (in meters) to clients * 2 (or 0 to disable), then Save
  6. Open the Wireless -> Wireless Security tab
    • Note: Security is optional, but recommended! Clients must support whatever mode you select here.
    • (Recommended) Security Mode: WPA2
    • (Recommended) WPA Algorithm: AES
    • (Recommended) WPA Shared Key: =>8 characters, then Save
  7. Open the Services -> Services tab
    • (Recommended) DNSMasq: Disable (enable if you use additional DNSMasq settings)
    • (Recommended) ttraff Daemon: Disable, then Save
  8. Open the Security -> Firewall tab
    • Disable SPI firewall, then Save
    • Check "Filter Multicast", then Save
  9. Open the Administration -> Management tab
    • (Recommended) Info Site Password Protection: Enable
    • Save then Apply Settings and connect Ethernet cable to main router LAN port
    • If not working, reboot the router to be sure all settings have been applied.
    • You may have to reboot the PC or "ipconfig /release" then "ipconfig /renew" in Windows

[edit]Review

There were three basic configuration changes you made to set up your router as a wireless access point.

[edit]Turn Off DHCP

If you did not turn off DHCP, when you plug your router into the network (after configuration), your WAP may provide IP addresses to clients on the wired network, and this may be inappropriate. Tracking down problems caused by multiple DHCP servers can be time-consuming and difficult.

Because it's so important, it is worth repeating: Turn off DHCP before you continue!

[edit]Set the IP address of the LAN Interface

Immediately after turning off DHCP, while your PC still has the IP address the WAP gave you, set the LAN interface of the WAP to the IP address you want it to use, e.g., if the host router is 192.168.1.1, give the WAP an IP of 192.168.1.2. Alternatively, you can use the instructions below to set the WAP's IP address via DHCP.

If you cannot connect to the WAP in order to set the LAN interface's IP address, it is probably because your computer no longer has an IP address on the same subnet. To get past this issue, simply set your computer's IP address and subnet to 192.168.1.8 and 255.255.255.0 respectively. (This assumes you are still using the default settings. If not, change the IP address and subnet as appropriate) You should now be able to point your browser at 192.168.1.1 (again assuming default settings).

[edit]LAN Uplink

There are two ways to connect your WAP to the LAN. You can either Uplink through one of the router's LAN ports, or use the WAN port that is normally connected to the cable/DSL modem.

[edit]LAN Uplink Through LAN Port

To complete the link between the two routers, connect a LAN port on the central router, to a LAN port on Linksys router (to be used as your WAP). You may need a crossover cable to do this, although many modern routers have automatic polarity sensing. To test this, connect a standard Ethernet cable between the two routers. If the LAN light comes on, the router has automatically switched the polarity and a crossover cable is not required.

[edit]LAN Uplink Through WAN Port

If you use your DD-WRT router as a WAP only, you may use your DD-WRT router's WAN port to connect it to your existing LAN. To do this, you need to disable the Internet Connection and "Assign WAN Port to Switch".

Normally, the router does Layer 3 IP routing. but by "Assigning WAN Port to Switch," your DD-WRT router will bypass that functionality and just pass on the Layer 2 ethernet packets from your wired network to the wireless network and vice versa.

Alternatively, if you have a router that supports assigning the WAN port to the switch:
Setup -> Basic Setup -> Internet Connection Type -> Connection Type = Disabled
Setup -> Basic Setup -> Network Setup -> WAN Port -> Assign WAN Port to Switch
you can connect the WAN port as your uplink to your main router. All this really buys you is an extra port (4 available instead of 3), but why not?

[edit]Roaming access

If you are installing additional Access Points to cover a broader area with Wi-Fi access, it is possible to allow clients to roam freely between them. The common method is to use the same SSID and Security settings on each access point. The clients control when to switch in between APs. Most clients will switch when they see a more powerful AP available but some client radios are not able to listen for a new AP when connected to an existing AP and as a result those clients will not roam to the new AP until they completely lose signal from the old one. A typical roaming transition from one AP to the other takes about 50ms if using simple authentication (open or WPA2 PSK AES)

Use a different channel on each AP. e.g. if you are in the US and installed two access points, use channels #1 and #11. Or if three access points, then use channels #1, #6, and #11 (setting the channels at least 5 apart should help keep interference between APs to a minimum). If you have a residential gateway with wireless turned on, and just one AP, then the same applies: each gets a different channel. If you are in Europe, use channels 1, 5, 9 & 13.

When using multiple Access Points, each one should be connected by LAN to LAN uplink as described above. They can even be attached to different switches within the same organization.

Access Point placements need to be carefully done. If the APs are too far away then there will be holes in the coverage and the clients will drop off when going from one AP to the other. If the APs are too close then clients will "stick" to one AP while moving out of its region and into another's. If the APs are too close and moving them farther apart is not practical then the transmit power on each AP can be reduced.

You can also try setting the APs to use the same channel. This will halve bandwidth when both APs are talking to clients but it may help clients that have problems sticking to one AP.

It can also be helpful to disable the slower 802.11 transfer rates with the Wl_command#rateset command for example:

wl down sleep 5 wl rateset 18b 24 36 48 54 wl up

This sets the minimum access to 18Mbit and clients will drop off as the signal level falls below what's needed to support this.

There are additional considerations with roaming using wireless VoIP gear, and WPA Enterprise modes. These environments require additional authentication from the client that could exceed the TCP/IP TTL and cause a disconnection of a higher level application such as the VoIP client. Because of that, the IEEE 802.11r-2008 protocol, a.k.a. Fast Transition (FT), was developed. DD-WRT does not currently support 802.11r FT but there is support for it in OpenWRT. The wireless client must also support Fast Roaming for this protocol for it to work; typically it will be cell phones that support it.

[edit]How To Use DHCP to Set the WAP's IP Address

Note: This step is optional. Having the WAP's IP address set by a DHCP server is not required. It can be made static, as shown above.

Note also that the steps below assume a DHCP server is running outside this DD-WRT WAP box on the LAN (e.g., in the FAI DSL box/gateway), so, keep this internal DD-WRT WAP DHCP server disabled as stated above, as well as all other settings.


It is not possible to set the LAN interface to get its IP address via DHCP using the web configuration interface. You can, however, set your startup script to obtain an IP address.

Simply set your IP address to (starting DHCP client):

[ ! -e /tmp/udhcpc ] && ln -s /sbin/rc /tmp/udhcpc udhcpc -i br0 -p /var/run/udhcpc.pid -s /tmp/udhcpc -H test-wrt-wireless hostname `nslookup \`ifconfig br0 | grep 'inet addr' |cut -f 2 -d ':'\` | grep 'Name:' | awk '{print $2;}' | cut -f 1 -d '.'` if test `hostname` != `nvram get wan_hostname`; then nvram set wan_hostname=`hostname`; nvram set router_name=`hostname`; nvram commit; fi

Only the two first lines are required if you don't want your WAP to set its name based on the IP address it gets. However, if you want to save a configuration file which will apply to several WAPs, that can be a handy feature.

EDIT 2013/09/19: If you leave the "Local DNS" GUI field to 0.0.0.0, then the WAP will use the DNS supplied by DHCP. To be functional, this requires the "Gateway" is set too. So, you also wish the gateway to be assigned by DHCP too. You do it appending

route add default gw `nvram get wan_gateway`

after the udhcpc command in the script. You will leave the unused Basic/Network Setup/"Gateway" GUI field to 0.0.0.0, or, to get a GUI feedback of the currently assigned wan_gateway nvram value, have this field filled by the value of the nvram lan_gateway value by setting this last the same way as the one below for wds_watchdog_ips.

Then you may want the optional WDS/Connection Watchdog to ping the gateway it just got from DHCP: just enable the watchdog in the GUI, set the wanted delay to have the WAP monitor the connection to the gateway, leave the IP's field blank, append the following 4 lines after the route add ... command above, so that they will fill it in for you and the watchdog will help your WAP to follow any change of the gateway IP address (as long as the previous gateway IP is no longer used. You can work around the case when the previous IP is reused for another purpose with a reboot on URL ping failure custom script plus the cron job that triggers it in the GUI Management tab, but if the gateway loses its WAN connection, the WAP's wireless clients may lose their wireless connection at the same rhythm the WAP reboots. To prevent this, think to ping both external(s) URL(s) and internal IP(s) and make the custom script to reboot the WAP when all pings fail - this will preserve internal connections in the case the Internet is lost at the gateway WAN side).

The if tests below are just here to preserve the nvram service life with no rewrite when not needed on boot. Even the WAP's ip will survive over reboots thanks to a static lease - this applies to other scripts.

GW=`route -n|grep UG|awk '{print $2;}'` if [ "`nvram get wds_watchdog_ips`" != "$GW" ]; then nvram set wds_watchdog_ips="$GW" nvram commit fi

Once you have manually set the router & hostname name fields, you should set the DHCP startup script this way:

[ ! -e /tmp/udhcpc ] && ln -s /sbin/rc /tmp/udhcpc udhcpc -i br0 -p /var/run/udhcpc.pid -s /tmp/udhcpc -H `nvram get wan_hostname` route add default gw `nvram get wan_gateway` GW=`route -n|grep UG|awk '{print $2;}'` IP_LAN=`ifconfig br0 | grep inet | cut -d: -f2 | cut -d' ' -f1` MSK=`ifconfig br0 | grep inet | cut -d: -f4` if [ "`nvram get lan_ipaddr`" != "$IP_LAN" ]; then nvram set lan_ipaddr="$IP_LAN"; NC=1; fi if [ "`nvram get lan_netmask`" != "$MSK" ]; then nvram set lan_netmask="$MSK"; NC=1; fi if [ "`nvram get lan_gateway`" != "$GW" ]; then nvram set lan_gateway="$GW"; NC=1; fi if [ "`nvram get wds_watchdog_ips`" != "$GW" ]; then nvram set wds_watchdog_ips="$GW"; NC=1; fi # enable the following if you need watchdog # if [ "`nvram get wds_watchdog_enable`" -ne 1 ]; then nvram set wds_watchdog_enable=1; NC=1; fi if [ "$NC" = 1 ]; then nvram commit; reboot; fi

The whole ip/mask/gateway will show correctly in the Settings web GUI page.

--Bib

[edit]Related wiki links

Secure remote management for a WAP

Categories: Wlan | Basic tutorials | Linking Routers

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Wireless_Access_Point

Repeater Bridge

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Wiki Path: DD-WRT Wiki Main / Tutorials / Linking Routers / Repeater Bridge

[edit]Introduction

A wireless bridge connects two LAN segments with a wireless link. The two segments are in the same subnet and look like two Ethernet switches connected by a cable to all computers on the subnet. Since the computers are on the same subnet, broadcasts reach all machines. DHCP clients in one segment can get their addresses from a DHCP server in the other segment.

Use a wireless bridge to transparently connect computers in one room to computers in a different room when you cannot—or don't want to—run an Ethernet cable between the two rooms.

[edit]Difference between Client Bridge and Repeater Bridge

A standard wireless bridge (Client Bridge) connects wired clients to a secondary router as if they were connected to your main router with a cable. Secondary clients share the bandwidth of a wireless connection back to your main router. Of course, you can still connect clients to your main router using either a cable connection or a wireless connection.

The limitation with standard bridging is that it only allows wired clients to connect to your secondary router. Wireless clients cannot connect to your secondary router configured as a standard bridge. Repeater Bridge allows wireless AND wired clients to connect to a the Repeater Bridge router, and through that device wirelessly to a primary router. You can still use this mode if you only need to bridge wired clients; the extra wireless repeater capability comes along for free; however, you are not required to use it.

Reference Image
Reference Image

In the case in which we are interested, a secondary router running DD-WRT v24 is configured as a Repeater Bridge between a Primary wireless router (of any make/brand/FW) allowing the above configuration.

[edit]Assumptions

Primary router is configured in a 192.168.1.X subnet and leases DHCP address in the same pool. Secondary router is running DD-WRT.

If using a multi-band router, do not set more than one band to RB. The other radio(s) would normally be set as AP. For example, the 2.4GHz radio can a CB while the 5GHz is an AP, or vice versa.

Note: If you are unsure of what you are doing, it is advisable to practice by setting up the router first in Client Bridge mode and get it working correctly. Client Bridge mode is simpler, but most of the settings are the same. Once you understand how to set up a client bridge and have it working, then proceed to setting up Repeater Bridge

[edit]Broadcom

This is a simple step-by-step guide to connect a router running current (2017) firmware in Repeater Bridge (RB) Mode. You do not need DD-WRT on the primary router for this to work, however, your primary router must be able to support encryption that works with DD-WRT (use WPA2-AES, not TKIP).

  • Read and understand the Firmware FAQ and (especially for MIPS) Peacock announcement before doing anything else.
  • Repeater Bridge with WPA2-AES is broken for k2.6 builds after 25974, though some models might work through 26125
  • Broadcom dhd driver models (e.g. AC5300 routers) cannot support RB (nor client bridge) modes since the driver is controlled by wireless firmware internal to the chipset. This makes it impossible to implement fake bridge modes, and is not fixable. While it can sometimes work without encryption, there is no guarantee nor official support. The driver will usually crash in these modes.

This mode is for a wireless bridge, where the SSID is repeated and the second router's ethernet ports provide wired connections to the main router, as if plugged into the main router.

For a secondary router running DD-WRT, the wireless mode must be configured as Repeater Bridge. It will connect to a primary router in AP mode (DD-WRT default) with DHCP Server enabled. Any type of VAP (Virtual Access Point) on the host should work, including a WDS-AP (Atheros) or any VAP including on another RB, but can depend on the host router.

[edit]Instructions

Make sure to click Save and not Apply between steps, as Save will commit the changes to NVRAM withough activating them (which Apply does), to prevent access problems, such as changing the IP address.

  1. Reset to Factory Defaults on secondary DD-WRT router
    • Optional (but suggested if having issues): Perform a hard reset
      • DO NOT 30-30-30 ARM routers. See your model wiki; some reset using the WPS button at power-up
      • Hold the reset button until lights flash (10-30sec) or 30-30-30 if appropriate for your router
  2. Hook up to the secondary router with an ethernet cable or as a wireless client.
    • The dd-wrt default wireless SSID is "dd-wrt"
  3. Open the GUI address http://192.168.1.1 in your web browser
  4. Open the Wireless -> Basic Settings tab
    • Physical Interface Section (for multi-band routers, only use Repeater on one radio)
      • Wireless Mode: Repeater Bridge
      • Wireless Network Mode: Match Primary Router
        • Usually N*-Mixed (or G-Only for pre-N routers), as Mixed may not work)
      • Wireless Network Name SSID: Must Match Primary Router EXACTLY including case
        • Note: some devices may not properly handle special characters, spaces, etc.
      • Wireless Channel: Usually leave at Auto for DD-WRT to determine the channel
      • Sensitivity Range (ACK Timing): 0 is recommended (this setting is not available for all routers)
      • Save (not Apply)
    • Virtual Interfaces Section: Click "Add"
      • Wireless Network Name(SSID): Same as Primary SSID. If having problems, try a different one.
        • k2.4 (broadcom folder) builds may require using a different SSID from the Primary
      • Save (not Apply)
  5. Open the Wireless -> Wireless Security tab
    • Physical Interface section (WPA2-AES strongly advised)
      • Security Mode, WPA Algorithms & Shared Key: Must Match Primary Router
    • Virtual Interfaces Section
      • Security Mode, WPA Algorithms & Shared Key: Must Match Physical Interface for k2.4
        1. WPA2-AES should be able to use a different password on k2.6 and newer
        2. WEP (with any password) or Open (disabled) should work on any kernel
      • Save (not Apply)
  6. Open the Security -> Firewall tab
  7. Open the Services -> Services tab: disable DNSMasq, then Save (not Apply)
  8. Open the Setup -> Basic Setup tab
    • WAN Connection Type: Disabled
    • IP Address: 192.168.1.2 (if not in use and assuming Primary Router IP is 192.168.1.1)
    • Mask: 255.255.255.0
    • Gateway: 192.168.1.1 (or Primary Router IP if not 192.168.1.1)
    • DHCP Server: Disable
    • Local DNS: 192.168.1.1 (or Primary Router IP if not 192.168.1.1)
    • Assign WAN Port to Switch: use WAN port as another LAN port (also allows access after a reset)
    • Change the Router Name (e.g. "DD-RB1") and set the Time Zone
  9. Go to the (Setup ->) Advanced Routing tab: Change the Mode to Router
    • Save and then APPLY settings: allow router to reboot
  10. Log back into the router GUI at its new IP address: http://192.168.1.2 (or the chosen IP Address above)
  11. Check internet connectivity: try to ping the second router from a client plugged into the ethernet port, then try to ping the primary router, and finally try the internet.
  12. Reboot the router if not working

You should now be able to connect wired and wireless clients to the newly configured Secondary Router. It will receive IP addresses from the Primary Router via DHCP, and access the internet connection through it's gateway.

NOTES:

  • All repeaters including Repeater Bridge mode will sacrifice half of the bandwidth available from the primary router for clients wirelessly connected to the repeater. This is a result of the repeater talking in turn to the Primary Router and client, relaying the traffic between them. As long as your internet bandwidth requirements are within this halved bandwidth there will be little observed reduction in speed.
  • Repeater Bridge on Broadcom [also Atheros Client Bridge (routed)] is generally not a good solution, as it is not a true bridge (BS from the .de forum). It should be fine for internet access with few clients, but more clients or more complicated networking is likely to cause trouble, since MAC addresses will not transverse its bridge. In contrast, WDS is a transparent bridge and useful for these things. Also, the primary host router's log can be full of arp spoofing attempts if it has ARP Spoofing Protection enabled in its security. Repeater (Broadcom) [or Client (QCA/Atheros)] is much more suitable to use for extending wireless; if WDS is not available.

[edit]Troubleshooting

Encryption type and key must be the same on both the primary and secondary router. The first thing to do when running into problems is to remove all encryption and see if the routers can connect. This is the single most common reason that bridged routers don't work

  • Wireless Clients cannot connect to Repeater:

Disable security and try again. Delete and recreate your profile on the wireless computer. Check to make sure you have set security properly and that the key you used matches the key in the primary router. If one security type doesn't work try another on all routers. eg. try WEP or WPA2-AES [Mera Pakistan]

  • NAT: Open the Setup->Advanced Routing tab and change the mode to "router" instead of "gateway".
  • Wireless Clients have no Internet:

Ensure the Gateway IP is specified in the repeater bridge router, and that it is the primary router's address.

[edit]D-Link DIR-615 D4

Many in the forums were having issues with getting this to work with v24-sp2 on the DIR-615 rev: D4.

  1. Restore Factory Defaults on Secondary (DD-WRT) Router
  2. Do a proper HARD 30-30-30 Reset on the router.
  3. Go to 192.168.1.1 and log in.
  4. Go to the wireless tab.
    • Choose Repeater Bridge under wireless mode.
    • Match your SSID and channel settings exactly to the main router you will be connecting to.
    • Make sure bridged is selected.
    • Click Save.
  5. Go to the Wireless Security tab.
    • Match these settings to your main router exactly.
    • Click Save.
  6. Go to setup>basic setup.
    • Choose a local IP in the same subnet that is not being used as your main router. If your main router is 192.168.1.1 then as long as it is not in use 192.168.1.2 will work. Assuming your ip is in this range the subnet will be 255.255.255.0 and the gateway and local dns will be 192.168.1.1.
    • Click Save
  7. Click Apply
  8. Check that the wireless is extended, and also with working LAN ports and internet

[edit]Qualcomm Atheros

Use build 32170 or newer. Do not follow the Broadcom instruction, as Qualcomm Atheros units set up a Repeater Bridge by using Client Bridge with an added VAP.

Open the Wireless -> Basic Settings tab

  • Physical Interface (ath0, ath1, etc.)
    • Wireless Mode: Client Bridge (Routed)
    • Default GW Mode: Auto (DHCP). Use manual with host IP if it refuses to connect, has no internet, or unable to access either the host or bridged router from the other end.
    • Wireless Network Mode: Match the host router.
    • Channel Width: Match the host router, if its unknown, select wide HT40, or VHT80 if using 802.11ac.
    • Wireless Network Name (SSID): Match the host router exactly, case sensitive, make sure you spell this correctly.
    • Network Configuration: Bridged
    • Click Save
    • Wireless Security: Match the host router, exactly including capitals & security algorithm. EX: Host using WPA2 Personal AES will still work if the repeater is set to WPA2 Personal Mixed AES, as it includes the algorithm in use (WPA2-AES).
    • Click Save

Open the Setup -> Basic Setup tab

  • Router IP
    • Local IP Address: Enter in any IP that is in the same subnet as the host router but outside of DHCP range. EX: If the host router is 10.1.1.1 & it's DHCP range is 10.1.1.100 ~ 10.1.1.254, any IP from 10.1.1.2 ~ 10.1.1.99 is fine as long as no other device is assigned to it.
    • Subnet Mask: Use the same subnet mask the host router is using, 255.255.255.0, 255.255.252.0 etc, for reference 10.1.1.0/24 = 255.255.255.0.
    • Click Save

  • If you only have devices connected to the repeater via ethernet, click apply settings now. If you have both ethernet & wireless, or just wireless clients, continue below.


Open the Wireless -> Basic Settings tab

  • Virtual Interfaces (ath0.1, ath1.1, etc.)
    • Click Add
    • Wireless Network Mode: AP
    • Wireless Network Name (SSID): Same as the host router if you want a repeater, or different from the host router if you want your own separate network or for other advanced configurations.
    • Wireless SSID Broadcast: Enable
    • Click Save
    • Wireless Security: Match the host router, exactly including capitals & security algorithm. EX: host using WPA2 Personal AES will still work if the repeater is set to WPA2 Personal Mixed AES, as it includes the algorithm in use (WPA2-AES).
    • Click Save
    • Network Configuration: Bridged if you want a repeater to extend the current network of the host router.
    • Click Apply Settings

[edit]Notes

[edit] SSIDs

Under "Wireless -> Basic Settings", you must use only the primary router's SSID for the physical interface to connect wireless clients and create a new SSID for the virtual interface. You will be able to tell which you are connected to as the two ssids MUST be different. (The only way to have one seamless network with the same ssid is to use WDS which almost always requires routers to support WDS AND have at least the same chipsets)

[edit]The "half bandwidth" misunderstanding

Too many people make a big deal out of the half bandwidth oversimplification of the repeater bridge setup. It's not that big of a deal, and not that complicated. A router can only talk to one device at a time. So if the router is set up as a repeater bridge AND it has active clients, the repeater bridge router must talk to two devices- the client computer and then to the primary router. This will effectively half the bandwidth available to the client computer, but it is no different than having two computers on a single primary router. The router can only talk to one at a time, so if both are active, it will only be able to talk to one at a time, effectively cutting the available bandwidth in half. So it really is no big deal. I see people all the time who are concerned about the "half bandwidth" issue, but are not at all concerned when there are two devices on their network. It's the same thing. And only matters at all when the device is active (transferring data to or from the wan).

[edit] Security

Dd-wrt will often not work unless BOTH the primary router and the secondary router use wpa2-aes security ONLY. Wep will also often work, but it is not secure.

Keep in mind any security settings will need to be configured including MAC filtering in order for the Secondary Router to connect to the Primary Router and also for clients connecting to the Secondary Router to gain full access to the connectivity of the Primary Router. There are some factors to consider when setting up Security for Client Bridge mode that may or may not be factors when setting up Repeater Bridge mode. I simply have not experimented with this.

[NOTE {Montrealmike}]Also when your adding WEP,WPA,WPA2 etc... between the AP and the repeater bridge you have to start with the AP first; then the repeater bridge.When you enable security on the repeater click save not apply, then click on the administration tab scroll down to the bottom and click apply settings. You will then have to power cycle the repeater twice ( unplug and plug back in twice ) in order for the repeater bridge and AP to synchronize. This has worked for four repeater bridges for me.

Edit - pmiller - I can also confirm the power cycling to sync the repeater to the AP. You can confirm that the repeater has syncronized with the AP by going to the Status>Wireless tab on the AP and viewing the MAC address of the repeater with some % signal quality value. Before doing 2 power cycles on the repeater, the MAC address would display on the AP's Status>Wireless tab, but with 0% signal quality. After the power cycles the % quality displayed around 30%. I played around with other security settings later on the AP and found the 2 power cycles to be unnecessary after the 2 had originally sync'ed- no idea why this would work, but it did. I had some difficulty at first because I had security enabled on the AP as WPA2-Personal Mixed, which is basically WPA2-AES or WPA-TKIP simultaneously. The repeater is unable to connect with the AP in this mixed mode; rather you must choose between WPA2-AES or WPA-TKIP . I have now switched both my wireless security settings to WPA-TKIP (physical and virtual) just for simplicity, though in theory the virtual need not match the physical. Your security is as good as the weakest link. For those having trouble, I would turn off all security and turn on SSID broadcast first, then once you get a good sync turn on security on the AP first, then

Edit - crandler - WPA2 personal mixed with Linksys WAG160N as DSL uplink with original firmware and WRT160N with dd-wrt v24 std in repeater bridge mode does not function. Had do switch both devices to WPA2 personal.

Edit - ytal - Using encryption for the bridged connection only works if I either use the same encryption data (incl. ESSID) on the other (virtual) interface or do not use any encryption on the virtual interface at all. If set differently, the wireless link to the base station fails. Base station is a Speedport W500V / Targa WR 500 VoIP (http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=5774) with the original Telekom firmware.

Edit - RamonBuckland - I found that setting the security to off worked first. But WPA2 Personal did not. I then lowered the key refresh to 15 seconds (same Wireless Security settings tab) on both routers and applied. They then found each other. One would figure if I were patient enough (to wait 3600 seconds, 1 hour) then it would have worked. So .. I think the key renewal is what throws them. I have it now working WPA2 Personal (AES) with a key renewal of 15 seconds. Perhaps upping it now to an hour and walking away (from the house) they will work :-) logically. Good work peoples.

Edit - MikeMaven - I'd just like to add my own confirmation. I was having problems with WPA2 at first. I think it was a result of the key refresh not occuring. I set it to 15 seconds, reconnected, and everything seems to be working great! For the record, I'm connecting to a 2wire AP using WPA2-Personal and the same key on both the physical and virtual interface.

[edit]Accessing Both Routers?

Since all routers are on the same subnet, you will be able to access both of the routers when connected to either of them.

[edit]MAC Filtering

For those of you who have enabled MAC filtering on your Primary router, you need to add the WLAN MAC address of your Secondary router to the permitted MAC filter list of the Primary router. This is different than the MAC address printed on the bottom of the case, you can find it by going to Status->Wireless and the top line will list the internal MAC address. Of course, you will want to add the MAC filter list to the Secondary router. This should be setup prior configuring your WPA, WPA2, etc. settings otherwise you will spend some time pondering why the bridge isn't working.

[EDIT - Redhawk] - The wording here was a little confusing. Once I used the Wireless MAC address then all worked correctly....the MAC filter address on the Primary router needs to be the "Wireless MAC" address listed on the Router Status page and not the LAN MAC address . (Use Router MAC +2) - Yes...I know it says WLAN but for an noob doing this procedure it could be confused.


Special thanks to Griminal for providing a basic graphic which I modified for this Wiki Entry.

IF YOUR ROUTER WIRELESS KEEPS DISCONNECTING PLEASE CHOOSE REPEATER AND NOT REPEATER BRIDGE

[edit]Site Survey Adjustment

Site Survey does NOT create any connection. It only fills in the name of the primary router, which you must save for site survey to have any use. You can fill in the primary SSID simply by typing it in on the secondary router instead of using site survey to type it for you.

You can verify that the Bridge is using correct settings by looking at the Status -> Wireless page on the Bridge where it will show details of the SSID, channel, and encryption in use. The real indicator of proper association is on the Access Point, where the Bridge's MAC should appear on AP's list of active clients (also Status -> Wireless if the AP is running dd-wrt).

[edit]See Also

Categories: Wlan | Switch | Linking Routers

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Repeater_Bridge

Wrt wifi dd

Tutorials

From DD-WRT Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

[edit]Getting Started

[edit]Basic Tutorials

These tutorials have content most new users will understand and be able to deploy. Category is here: Category:Basic tutorials

[edit]Advanced Tutorials

These tutorials require a certain degree of knowledge about general networking that some new users may or may not understand. Also, check out the Advanced tutorials Category

  • One-to-one NAT (aka Static NAT)
  • Optware Category
  • Overclocking BCM 47xx CPU's
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Throttling
  • Pixelserv - Remove Ads on DD-WRT (requires JFFS)
  • Policy Based Routing
  • Preventing Brute Force Attacks
  • Point-to-Point PPTP Tunneling with two DD-WRT
  • PXE - Boot images with DD-WRT DHCP]]
  • Router as a Web Server
  • Rsync Backup Server (win/mac/linux clients)
  • Setting up IPTV without impact to LAN and Wireless traffic
  • SES Button customization
  • SFTP with DD-WRT - Router access by SFTP
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • siproxd - VoIP proxy for sip devices without NAT
  • Setting up a Transparent Proxy Server using Squid
  • Tunneling/VPN Category - Wireguard, OpenVPN, PPTP
  • Ushare uPnP media server
  • Rflow - Network Traffic Info
  • VLANs Category
  • Wan Category - including Cellular Phone, USB Modem, PPPoE, Dual WAN, DSL, Dial-up, etc.
  • Wireguard - simple, fast, modern, and secure VPN

[edit]Installable Packages

This list covers additional software that can be installed on devices running DD-WRT. Optware also provides many NSLU2-Linux packages build specially for DD-WRT. Installing Entware is also supported and more modern than Optware, with even more packages.

[edit]La Fonera Tutorials

Categories: Documentation | Tutorials

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Tutorials
Make your home Wifi router a super router with dd-wrt

Advanced wireless settings

From DD-WRT Wiki

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[edit]Introduction

Before reading this page please be familiar with Basic Wireless Settings.

This page contains more robust explanations of Advanced Wireless Settings than the built in help provides. It was originally authored by Stephen Suley in this thread. Note, this is mainly for Broadcom Routers.

See QCA wireless settings page for specific info for Qualcomm Atheros advanced settings.

[edit] Advanced Wireless Settings

[edit] Authentication Type

Available Settings: Auto, Shared Key

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Auto


The help file says... * Allows either Open System or Shared Key authentication to be used. For Open System authentication, the sender and the recipient do NOT use a WEP key for authentication. For Shared Key authentication, the sender and recipient use a WEP key for authentication. If you want to use only Shared Key authentication, then select Shared Key.

How it works:

The following steps occur when two devices use Shared Key Authentication:

  1. The client adapter sends an authentication request to the access point.
  2. The access point sends back a challenge text to the client adapter.
  3. The client uses its configured 64-bit or 128-bit default key to encrypt the challenge text, and it sends the encrypted text to the access point.
  4. The access point decrypts the encrypted text using its configured WEP key that corresponds to the client's default key. The access point compares the decrypted text with the original challenge text. If the decrypted text matches the original challenge text, then the access point and the client share the same WEP key, and the access point authenticates the client.
  5. The client will now connect to the network.

If the decrypted text does not match the original challenge text (that is, the access point and station do not share the same WEP key), then the access point will refuse to authenticate the station, and the station will be unable to communicate with either the 802.11 network or Ethernet network.

-This would add an additional layer of connection authentication for wireless clients. Using this feature means you must modify the wifi adapter settings on a client before it can connect to this device.

-Client wifi adapters must support "Shared Key" authentication to use this setting.

-If using a client connected to the router over wireless and you set authentication key to shared, from auto, and your computer doesn't support shared, you will lose all Internet access and access to the webgui and you will have to connect with a wire to the router to change the setting back to auto. You can also do a hard reset to get it back to defaults to fix this.

-I equate using "Shared key" to adding authentication security to the "Phase 1" of the wifi connection process

-Changing this from the default value would be for security reasons.

[edit] Basic Rate

Available Settings: Default, 1-2Mbps, all

Default Setting: Default

Recommended Setting: Default

The help file says... * Depending on the wireless mode you have selected, a default set of supported data rates will be selected. The default setting will ensure maximum compatibility with all devices. You may also choose to enable all data rates by selecting ALL. For compatibility with older Wireless-B devices, select 1-2Mbps.

How it works:

?

[edit] MIMO - Transmission Fixed Rate

Available Settings: Auto, a range of values from 6.5Mbps upwards

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Auto

The help file says...

  • The idea is the same as "Transmission Fixed Rate" You can select from a range of MIMO transmission speeds, or keep the default setting, Auto, to have the router automatically use the fastest possible data rate and enable the Auto-Fallback feature. Auto-Fallback will negotiate the best possible connection speed between the router and a wireless client.

How it works:

This parameter is used for 802.11n transmissions only. 802.11a/b/g transmissions from the router use the "Transmission Fixed Rate" parameter.

IEEE 802.11n builds on previous 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). MIMO uses multiple transmitter and receiver antennas to improve the system performance. MIMO is a technology which uses multiple antennas to coherently resolve more information than possible using a single antenna. Two important benefits it provides to 802.11n are antenna diversity and spatial multiplexing. MIMO technology relies on multipath signals. Multipath signals are the reflected signals arriving at the receiver some time after the line of sight (LOS) signal transmission has been received. MIMO uses the multipath signal's diversity to increase a receiver's ability to recover the message information from the signal.

Another ability MIMO technology provides is Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM). SDM spatially multiplexes multiple independent data streams, transferred simultaneously within one spectral channel of bandwidth. MIMO SDM can significantly increase data throughput as the number of resolved spatial data streams is increased. Each spatial stream requires a discrete antenna at both the transmitter and the receiver. In addition, MIMO technology requires a separate radio frequency chain and analog-to-digital converter for each MIMO antenna which translates to higher implementation costs compared to non-MIMO systems.

[edit] Transmission Fixed Rate

Available Settings: Auto, range from 1 to 54 Mbps

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Auto

The help file says... * The rate of data transmission should be set depending on the speed of your wireless network. You can select from a range of transmission speeds, or keep the default setting, Auto, to have the router automatically use the fastest possible data rate and enable the Auto-Fallback feature. Auto-Fallback will negotiate the best possible connection speed between the router and a wireless client.

How it works:

?

[edit] CTS Protection mode

Available Settings: Auto, Disabled

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Auto

The help file says... * When set to Auto, a protection mechanism will ensure that your Wireless-B devices will connect to the Wireless-G router when many Wireless-G devices are present. However, performance of your Wireless-G devices may be decreased.

How it works:

CTS Protection mode is a protection mechanism that operates on the physical (PHY) level frame. At a very high level summary of the process when multiple devices are connected to an access point, they can occasionally be transmitting data to the access point at the same time because neither one can see the other client well enough to determine if it is transmitting on the channel or not. When this happens, the AP will discard both pieces of colliding data, thus contributing to error rates. CTS (clear to send) protection skirts this issue by delegating which device gets to transmit at a given time.

CTS Protection mode and DD-wrt:

In its default configuration dd-wrt uses it as a to provide a way of ensuring coexistence between the legacy and the new wifi devices. Adding to that by using CTS protection mode and modifying RTS threshold value you can tweak the operation of the CTS protection mechanism this can then be combined with the Fragmentation Threshold tweak to help troubleshoot\fix connectivity and\or performance issues etc. Remember tweaking the CTS protection process by manipulating the RTS and the Fragmentation Threshold value often comes at a price usually by decreasing the overall throughput to the WLAN.

Once CTS Protection mode is configured correctly within your WLAN environment there are specific scenarios that occur and the software will activate the CTS protection mechanisms;

Here are a few examples of what triggers CTS to be employed by the dd-wrt router software.

CTS Protection trigger 1; - NON-default dd-wrt behavior A client that wants to use the radio channel to send data packet(s) of a size that is equal or above the defined RTS threshold value.

CTS Protection trigger 2; -default dd-wrt behavior A 802.11g client attempts to connect to a SSID that is using channel bonding. Transmissions using a 40 MHz channel in the presence of 802.11a or 802.11g clients require using CTS protection mode. This will apply the CTS protection mechanism on both 20 MHz halves of the 40 MHz channel, to prevent interference with legacy devices and allow proper operation of the 802.11a and 802.11g clients.

CTS Protection trigger 3; -default dd-wrt behavior If you are running in mixed wireless mode on a 802.11n router and you have 802.11b clients in your environment. CTS Protection is used to allow the 802.11b client to operate correctly and also not to interfere with the operation of the 802.11a,g, and N client transmissions.

Also; - An 11b device associates to the AP. - same as trigger 3 - An 11b AP on the same channel can be heard by the AP - variant on trigger 3 - The AP hears an 11g AP that is in protection because of an 11b device associated. -another variation of the trigger 3 event.

NOTE: Trigger 1 will never happen on the dd-wrt default configuration due to the default values of the RTS Threshold being 2347 and the Fragmentation Threshold value being 2346. Based on the data packet fragmentation threshold default value at 2346 in size dd-wrt will apply fragmentation to all packets meeting this criteria. Because of this fragmentation process the 2347 packet size needed to trigger the RTS threshold is never reached.

For a closer look at what happens in one of these cases lets look at a case like trigger number 1 list above and the steps in the CTS protection process.

Example. A client that wants to use the radio channel to send data packet(s) of a size that is equal or above the defined RTS threshold value.

Steps in the CTS Protection mode process for the above example.

1.) The client wishing to send date over the channel first sends an RTS (request to send) packet to the AP.

2.) As the AP broadcast it beacons packet over the WLAN as part of its normal operation, The beacon packet has information within it that declares to all the clients on the entire WLAN not to try and send any information for a specified period of time. The AP then sends a CTS packet to the client that requested the CTS in the first place. The AP has made a single client the "owner" of the wifi channel and then the AP listens only to that client until it is done transmitting; its in protection mode.

3.)The process is repeated for all request to transfer data,which for whatever reason triggers the CTS protection mechanisms, on a first come first serve basis.

TWEAK: Implementing additional CTS Protection mode triggers and there frequency of operation on top of the default dd-wrt CTS protection mode configuration;

1.) The AP running dd-wrt has the CTS Protection mode is set to Auto by default and then you could adjust the RTS threshold value to something lower then 2346 (Which is the default fragmentation threshold value on dd-wrt) on the AP.

2.) All clients connected to the dd-wrt AP are configured for CTS\RTS mode as apposed to setting of "disabled" or "CTS-Self" mode.

NOTE Typically the The RTS Threshold value on dd-wrt is only lowered when needed to address or troubleshoot some sort of connectivity or performance issue with a client or all clients on a WLAN. Adjusting the value is a balancing act between getting your problem fixed and losing overall WLAN speed. The more times CTS protection mode is triggered in a period of time "its frequency" the more impact it will have; good or bad. So start with 2340, then 2320, 2300 etc...

Guide when to use and why.

-If your trying to tweak out every drop of performance in an ideal setup then you can disable this on the AP and clients. Test again to see if it helps for better results, it should.

-If you want to try 40MHz with your 802.11n clients you might want to start with CTS Protection set to Auto. You do this in case you have 802.11a or g or even some N clients that do not support 40GHz transmissions or "channel bonding" as it is sometimes called.

-If you have a 802.11n based router running in mixed wireless mode that you want to connect 802.11b clients you need to have CTS protection mode set to Auto meaning enabled.

-If CTS Protection makes things faster a network redesign might be needed.

-"CTS to self" based protection - an alternate implementation method of CTS; where by the device willing to send frames over the WLAN first sends a CTS frame to itself. "CTS to self" based protection has less overhead, but it must be taken into account that this only protects against devices receiving CTS frame (e.g. if there are 2 "hidden" stations, there is no use for them to use "CTS to self" protection, because they will not be able to receive CTS sent by other station - in this case stations must use RTS/CTS so that other station knows not to transmit by seeing CTS transmitted by AP).If you have set the CTS protection mode to disabled on the dd-wrt AP, then this is a good choice for the client configuration.

[edit] Frame Burst

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable

The help file says...

  • Frame burst allows packet bursting which will increase overall network speed though this is only recommended for approx 1-3 wireless clients, Anymore clients and there can be a negative result and throughput will be affected.

How it works:

Frame-bursting is a technique in wireless technology supported by the draft 802.11e Quality of Service specification. Frame Bursting may increase the throughput of any (point-to-point) 802.11A, B, G or N link connection in certain conditions. This is done by reducing the overhead associated with the wireless session from either: * Access Point to Client and vice versa

  • Client to Client in ad-hoc mode.

This can result in the ability to support higher data throughput in mixed and uniform networks.

It enhances the ability of a wireless client to upload data at faster speeds by using the inter-frame wait intervals to "burst" a sequence of up to three packets before waiting the required period. This allows more data to be sent and less waiting to occur, however, can result in unfair allocation of airtime where there are a mix of clients of which only some support Frame-Bursting as the inter-frame wait periods are contention periods where other stations with data to send can seize the air and send their data.

-Frame Burst is useful when transferring large data, but the benefits are not as big as most people hope for.

-It allows, as name says, a client to burst many frames in a short amount of time.

[edit] Beacon Interval

Available Settings: range from 10 to 65535 ms

Default Setting: 100 ms

Recommended Setting: 50 ~ 300 for 2.4 GHz & 75 ~ 250 for 5 GHz

The help file says... * The Beacon Interval value indicates the frequency interval of the beacon. A beacon is a packet broadcast by the router to synchronize the wireless network. 50 is recommended in poor reception.

How it works:

The term beacon signifies a specific data transmission from the wireless access point (AP), which carries the SSID, the channel number and security protocols such as WEP (Wired Equivalent Protection) or WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access). This transmission does not contain the link layer address of another Wi-Fi device, therefore it can be received by any LAN client.The beacon frame, which is a type of management frame, can be likened with the "heartbeat" of a wireless LAN, enabling stations to establish and maintain communications in an orderly fashion.

What is a Beacon Interval As mentioned above, the beacon interval is a fixed, configurable parameter. Typically, the beacon interval setting is not touched at all in the WLAN network installation phase, but the default value selected by the equipment supplier is used. If the beacon interval is long, maximum capacity in the Access Point is achieved. However, it will the take a long time for WLAN terminals to scan for Access Points in the area and to update RSSI and load information for already found Access Points. This obviously reduces terminal throughput and wastes battery. On the other hand, if the beacon interval in short, passive scanning performed by the WLAN terminals will be faster, but the overall capacity of the Access Point will be reduced.

NOTE There are no special rules for sending beacons, and they must be sent using the mandatory 802.11 carrier sense multiple access / collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm. If another station is sending a frame when the beacon is to be sent, then the access point (or NIC in an ad hoc network) must wait. As a result, the actual time between beacons may be longer than the beacon interval. Clients, however, compensate for this inaccuracy by utilizing the timestamp found within the beacon packet information.

What is a Beacon?

A typical beacon frame is approximately fifty bytes long, with about half of that being a common frame header and cyclic redundancy checking (CRC) field. As with other frames, the header includes source and destination MAC addresses as well as other information regarding the communications process. The destination address is always set to all ones, which is the broadcast Medium Access Control (MAC) address. This forces all other stations on the applicable channel to receive and process each beacon frame. The CRC field provides error detection capability.

The beacon's frame body resides between the header and the CRC field and constitutes the other half of the beacon frame. Each beacon frame carries the following information in the frame body:

Beacon interval. This represents the amount of time between beacon transmissions. Before a station enters power save mode, the station needs the beacon interval to know when to wake up to receive the beacon (and learn whether there are buffered frames at the access point).

Timestamp. After receiving a beacon frame, a station uses the timestamp value to update its local clock. This process enables synchronization among all stations that are associated with the same access point.

Service Set Identifier (SSID). The SSID identifies a specific wireless LAN. Before associating with a particular wireless LAN, a client must have the same SSID configured as the access point. By default, access points include the SSID in the beacon frame to enable sniffing functions (such as that provided by Windows XP) to identify the SSID and automatically configure the wireless network interface card (NIC) with the proper SSID. DD-Wrt also has an option to disable the SSID from being broadcast in beacon frames to reduce security issues.

Supported rates. Each beacon carries information that describes the rates that the particular wireless LAN supports. For example, a beacon may indicate that only 1, 2, and 5.5Mbps data rates are available. As a result, an 802.11b station would stay within limits and not use 11 Mbps. With this information, stations can use performance metrics to decide which access point to associate with.

Parameter Sets. The beacon includes information about the specific signaling methods (such as frequency hopping spread spectrum, CTS Protection mode and RTS Threshold,direct sequence spread spectrum, etc.). For example, a beacon would include in the appropriate parameter set the channel number that an 802.11b access point is using. Likewise, a beacon belonging to frequency hopping network would indicate hopping pattern and dwell time.

Capability Information. This signifies requirements of stations that wish to belong to the wireless LAN that the beacon represents. For example, this information may indicate that all clients must use wired equivalent privacy (WEP) in order to participate on the network.

Traffic Indication Map (TIM). An access point periodically sends the TIM within a beacon to identify which stations using power saving mode have data frames waiting for them in the access point's buffer. The TIM identifies a station by the association ID that the access point assigned during the association process.

NOTE Today beacon frames also contain a load information that informs WLAN terminals currently connected to a specific Access Point or considering making a handover to that Access Point about the load situation. This information helps the WLANterminals in making correct handover decision, in addition to the information from the comparisons of RSSI readings obtained by scanning, and thus ensures that WLAN traffic is divided more evenly between all Access Points in the area.

TWEAK:

By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the beacons.

You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go down.

In addition, stations using power save mode will need to consume more power because they'll need to awaken more often, which reduces power saving mode benefits. In an idle network, beacons dominate all other traffic.

Guide to tweaking: The amount of overhead that the transmissions of beacon frames generate is substantial; however, the beacon serves a variety of functions. For example, each beacon transmission identifies the presence of an access point.

How a beacon interval impacts the client By default, radio NICs passively scan all RF channels and listen for beacons coming from access points in order to find a suitable access point. When a beacon is found, the radio NIC learns a great deal about that particular network. This enables a ranking of access points based on the received signal strength of the beacon, along with capability information regarding the network. The radio NIC can then associate with the most preferable access point. After association, the station continues to scan for other beacons in case the signal from the currently-associated access point become too weak to maintain communications. As the radio NIC receives beacons from the associated access point, the radio NIC updates its local clock to maintain timing synchronization with the access point and other stations. In addition, the radio NIC will abide by any other changes, such as data rate, that the frame body of the beacon indicates. The beacons also support stations implementing power saving mode. With infrastructure networks, the access point will buffer frames destined for sleeping stations and announce which radio NICs have frames waiting through the TIM (DTIMS) that's part of the beacon

Do clients send beacon frames too??... As apposed to beacons sent out by AP's, Clients send out "probe request" frames; It's like an opposite to a beacon, clients use a probe request packets to play there role in the 802.11 WLAN. An 802.11 probe response frame is very similar to a beacon frame, except that probe responses don't carry the TIM info and are only sent in response to a probe request. A client may send a probe request frame to trigger a probe response when the client needs to obtain information from another client on the same WLAN. A client, for instance, will broadcast a probe request when using active scanning to determine which access points are within range for possible association. Some sniffing software (e.g., NetStumbler) tools send probe requests so that access points will respond with desired info.

-Beacons are packets sent by an access point to synchronize a wireless network.

-Normal Traffic Indication Message(TIM)s that are present in every beacon are for signaling the presence of unbuffered unicast data.

[edit] DTIM Interval

Available Settings: range from 1 to 255

Default Setting: 1

Recommended Setting: 1 (assuming default beacon interval of 100 is used)

The help file says... * Indicates the interval of the Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM). A DTIM field is a countdown field informing clients of the next window for listening to broadcast and multicast messages. When the router has buffered broadcast or multicast messages for associated clients, it sends the next DTIM with a DTIM Interval value. Its clients hear the beacons and awaken to receive the broadcast and multicast messages.

How it works:

A Delivery Traffic Indication Message is a kind of Traffic Indication Message(TIM) which informs the clients about the presence of buffered and/or multicast/broadcast data on the access point. It is generated within the periodic beacon at a frequency specified by the DTIM Interval. After a DTIM, the access point will send the multicasted/broadcasted data on the channel following the normal channel access rules (CSMA/CA).

According to the 802.11 standards, a Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) period value is a number that determines how often a beacon frame includes a Delivery Traffic Indication Message, and this number is included in each beacon frame. A DTIM is included in beacon frames, according to the DTIM period, to indicate to the client devices whether the access point has buffered broadcast and/or multicast data waiting for them. Following a beacon frame that includes a DTIM, the access point will release the buffered broadcast and/or multicast data, if any exists.

Since beacon frames are sent using the mandatory 802.11 carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) algorithm, the access point must wait if a client device is sending a frame when the beacon is to be sent. As a result, the actual time between beacons may be longer than the beacon interval. Client devices that awaken from power-save mode may find that they have to wait longer than expected to receive the next beacon frame. Client devices, however, compensate for this inaccuracy by utilizing the time-stamp found within the beacon frame.

The 802.11 standards define a power-save mode for client devices. In power-save mode, a client device may choose to sleep for one or more beacon intervals waking for beacon frames that include DTIMs. When the DTIM period is 2, a client device in power-save mode will awaken to receive every other beacon frame. Upon entering power-save mode, a client device will transmit a notification to the access point, so that the access point will know how to handle unicast traffic destined for the client device. The client device will begin to sleep according to the DTIM period.

-The higher the DTIM period, the longer a client device may sleep and therefore the more power that particular client device may potentially save.

-Client devices in wireless networks may have conflicting requirements for power consumption and communication throughput when in power-save mode. For example, laptops may require relatively high communication throughput and may have low sensitivity to power consumption. Therefore, a relatively low DTIM period, for example 1, may be suitable for laptops . However, cellphones may require relatively low communication throughput and may be operated by batteries of relatively low capacity. Therefore, a relatively high DTIM period, for example 8, may be suitable for cellphones. Further, PDA\Smart phones may require a medium to high communication throughput and may be operated by batteries of relatively low capacity. Therefore, a medium DTIM period, for example a value of 4, may be suitable for these devices.

-Currently, an access point is able to store only a single DTIM period. Consequently, different client devices in power-save mode will all wake up for the same beacon frames according to the DTIM period. Currently, a network manager may need to balance the conflicting requirements for power consumption and communication throughput when in power-save mode of client devices in different wireless networks when configuring the DTIM period of an access point. In the future an access point with support for two or more SSIDs may have SSID-dependent DTIM periods rather than a single DTIM period for all SSIDs. In other words, the network manager may configure the access point with DTIM periods on a per SSID basis. A network manager may consider the requirements of power consumption and communication throughput of client devices in a particular wireless networks when determining which DTIM period to configure for which SSID. A higher DTIM period may increase the potential savings in power consumption but may reduce the communication throughput, and vice versa

[edit] Fragmentation Threshold

Available Settings: range from 256 to 2346

Default Setting: 2346

Recommended Setting: 2346

The help file says... * It specifies the maximum size for a packet before data is fragmented into multiple packets. If you experience a high packet error rate, you may slightly increase the Fragmentation Threshold. Setting the Fragmentation Threshold too low may result in poor network performance. Only minor modifications of this value are recommended.

How it works:

The Threshold for fragmentation to occur is a 802.11 configuration parameter. This is an optional feature, the 802.11 standard and dd-wrt includes the ability for access points to fragment packets for improving performance in the presence of RF interference and marginal coverage areas

To use fragmentation means to divide 802.11 frames into smaller pieces (fragments) that are sent separately to the destination. Each fragment consists of a MAC Layer header, frame check sequence (FCS), and a fragment number indicating its ordered position within the frame. Because the source transmits each fragment independently, the receiving destination replies with a separate acknowledgement for each fragmen

-Fragmentation only applies to frames having a unicast (address assigned to a single host on your network) receiver address.

-The use of fragmentation can increase the reliability of frame transmissions. Because of sending smaller frames, collisions are much less likely to occur.

-Similar to RTS, a good method to find out if you should activate fragmentation is to monitor the wireless LAN for collisions. If you find a relatively large number of collisions, then try using fragmentation. This can improve throughput if the fragmentation threshold is set just right.

-try setting the fragmentation threshold to around 800 bytes first, then tweak it until you find the best results.

-As with any 802.11 tuning mechanisms, the goal is to improve performance.

-If what you do improves throughput, then you're doing the right thing.

-If hidden nodes are present the use of RTS and\or CTS could be a better way to reduce collisions.

[edit] RTS Threshold

Available Settings: range from 0 to 2347

Default Setting: 2347

Recommended Setting: 2347

The help file says... * The router sends Request to Send (RTS) frames to a particular receiving station and negotiates the sending of a data frame. After receiving an RTS, the wireless station responds with a Clear to Send (CTS) frame to acknowledge the right to begin transmission.

How it works:

The RTS Threshold value is a configurable parameter within the CTS Protection mechanism. The RTS threshold is used as a trigger to engage the back and forth of RTS and CTS messages between AP and client. The triggers purpose is a type of handshaking approach that provides and additional layer of control over the use of the shared medium, or in the case of DD-WRT the Radio Channel or WLAN. If enabled, A node (client) wishing to send data initiates the process by sending a Request to Send frame (RTS).

How the RTS Threshold value works in DD-WRT. As discussed in the CTS Protection mode section of this document, when a packet that a DD-WRT access point is transmitting is larger than the RTS threshold set in the configuration, DD-WRT will initiate the CTS Protection mode handshaking function. If the network packet being sent is smaller or fragmented to a size lower than the preset RTS threshold size, the CTS Protection mode mechanism will still not be enabled for that packet. Note if the packet size happens to be equal to the threshold, DD-WRT will not use CTS.

Tweak: In DD-WRT, the default configuration after a flash sets the CTS Protection mode not to get triggered to protect transmissions by RTS. This is due to the fact that Sending RTS frames is turned off by default (threshold >=2347bytes). If the packet size the node wants to transmit is larger than the threshold, the RTS/CTS handshake gets triggered. If the packet size is equal to or less than threshold the data frame gets sent immediately.

The method for enabling RTS-CTS triggers on DD-WRT is different than with client NICs. For DD-WRT, you enable RTS-CTS handshaking triggers within WebGUI by setting a specific packet size threshold (0 - 2347 bytes) in the user configuration interface; only minor modifications are recommended.

Set this value to a 2340 bytes as a start, test, then if needed try a lower value, etc.

Save. Apply. Reboot.

Rollback Set the value back to its default value of 2347 bytes and disable RTS threshold triggers in the CTS Protection mode operation on the router.

[edit] Max Associated Clients

Available Settings: range from 1 to 256

Default Setting: depends on the router, usually 128

Recommended Setting: What ever you want

The help file says... *

How it works:

This number will determine how many clients can be connected to the routers wireless LAN (WLAN)

[edit] AP Isolation

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable for private home Wi-Fi with trusted users, enable for public/guest Wi-Fi hotspot

The help file says... * This setting isolates wireless clients so access to and from other wireless clients are stopped.

How it works:

Wireless access points work by bridging the wireless port to the wired switch ports and router port. Everything happens at the MAC address level and does not involve IP addresses,NETBIOS over TCP/IP (also known as MS Networking). Just MAC addresses.

The wireless bridge builds a bridging table consisting of a table of "heard" (or sniffed) MAC addresses that appear on various ports. Think of the router having just 3 available ports; Wireless, Ethernet switch, and router port. If the destination MAC address of a port is shows up in the MAC address table as sitting on a specific port, only that port gets the traffic. Broadcasts, which have no destination MAC address are sent to all ports.

When this feature is enabled the software builds a logical rule (or filter) for these MAC addresses and ports that says:

"If the packet originates on the wireless port, it can only send and receive packets that are destined or originate from the router port or ethernet switch port."

Not a very complex rule, but one which totally prevents wireless client to client traffic. Not even broadcasts will go from wireless client to client.

-prevents one wireless client communicating with another wireless client.

-This breaks the connection between WLAN and WLAN

-No improvement in performance, performance is exactly the same. The difference is in "reliability" or ability to survive in a multi-path environment.

-You enable this if you are running a hotspot. Click Network Neighborhood in a motel sometime, see if the motel needs to set AP isolation.

-Changing this from the default value would be for security reasons.

[edit] TX Antenna / RX Antenna

Available Settings: 1, 1+2, 1+3, 1+2+3, 1+2+3+4 (varies by router)

Default Setting: Varies by router

Recommended Setting: Varies by router

This setting is critical for proper, smooth, fast Wi-Fi performance. 2x2:2 routers will either have TX/RX chains at 1+2/1+2, 1+3/1+3, 1+2/1+3, or 1+3/1+2. This can take some time to find the proper setting but its worth it, you can more easily find the correct setting by using a 802.11n client thats capable of 300 Mbps link. Note the TX/RX link rates on the wireless status page, when set incorrectly one or both of the rates will drop to a much lower speed such as 200, 170, 81 etc. This is best done with the client less than 10 feet from the AP with clear line of sight. Some routers with chains set incorrectly such as D-Link DIR-615 C1, will deny connections to clients, heavily reduce throughput, and other errors. Searching the FCC ID of your router will aid in setting the correct chain settings. Some popular routers such as the Netgear WNDR3700 v1/2/4 and D-Link DIR-825 B1/B2 require both chains set at 1+2 for proper Wi-Fi performance. Default is not always right!*

* With builds around r21061 or later, most units have the proper defaults preset & invalid options removed, such as 1+2+3 for TX/RX on WNDR3700 v1, v2, & v4 as the router only has 2 chains each therefor only has 1 & 1+2 available to be selected. While a Asus N66U have 1+2+3 as they are 3x3:3 units. An example 4x4:4 unit is the R7800.

* The option may have disappeared in recent builds (>336XX).

The help file says... * This is used in conjunction with external antennas to give them optimum performance. On some router models left and right antennas may be reversed depending on you point of view.

How it works:

This value determines which Antenna connection is used for the purposes of Rx and Tx functions.

[edit] Preamble

Available Settings: Short, Long, Auto

Default Setting: Long

Recommended Setting: Short

The help file says... * If your wireless device supports the short preamble and you are having trouble getting it to communicate with other 802.11b devices, make sure that it is set to use the long preamble.

How it works:

The preamble is used to communicate to the receiver that data is on its way. Technically speaking, it is the first portion of the Physical Layer Convergence Protocol/Procedure (PLCP) Protocol Data Unit (PDU). The preamble allows the receiver to acquire the wireless signal and synchronize itself with the transmitter. A header is the remaining portion and contains additional information identifying the modulation scheme, transmission rate and length of time to transmit an entire data frame.

Long Preamble: * Compatible with legacy IEEE* 802.11 systems operating at 1 and 2 Mbps (Megabits per second)

  • PLCP with long preamble is transmitted at 1 Mbps regardless of transmit rate of data frames
  • Total -Long Preamble transfer time is a constant at 192 usec (microseconds)

Short Preamble: * Not compatible with legacy IEEE 802.11 systems operating at 1 and 2 Mbps -PLCP with short preamble: Preamble is transmitted at 1 Mbps and header at 2 Mbps - -Total Long Preamble transfer time is a constant at 96 usec (microseconds)

  • Unless you have 802.11b (1 or 2Mbits/sec) client radios in your system, there's no need for a long preamble. The default for most access points is "automatic". It only enables long preambles when associated with a 1 or 2Mbit/sec client radio.
  • Most access points (AP) and broadband WiFi routers are configured for a Long Preamble or have a setting that automatically detects the preamble and adjusts accordingly. A majority of client WiFi adapters should also be pre-configured in the same manner. This is done as a precautionary measure for networks that may still employ legacy devices.

[edit] Shortslot Override

Available Settings: Short, Long, Auto

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Short

The help file says... *

How it works:

Short Slot Times - The amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. You can increase throughput on 802.11g, 2.4-GHz radios by enabling Shortslot override (most .11g radios enable this by default). Reducing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9-microsecond short slot time decreases the overall backoff, which increases throughput. Backoff, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN.

Many 802.11g radios support Shortslot override, but some do not. When Shortslot override is enabled, the wireless device uses the short slot time only when all clients associated to the 802.11g, 2.4-GHz radio support Shortslot override. Shortslot override is an 802.11g-only feature and does not apply to 802.11a radios.

SUMMARY: Slot times should transition from 20us to 9us when a "pure" .11g environment exists for that AP. Also applies to NG networks.

[edit] TX Power

Broadcom:

Available Settings: Auto or Manual

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Auto, unless you know what you are doing.


Atheros and others:

Available Settings: 0 ~ 999

Default Setting: 16 ~ 30 dBm (varies by router)

Recommended Setting: Highest dBm your radios & local laws legally allow**

Some people believe that "high" TX power (i.e., greater than 25 dBm), may be of concern to one's health. That is not the case but each to their own. So if that's you then 22 - 25 dBm should be sufficient; any lower & range starts to significantly drop (unless you want to of course & if you have an older router than only does something like 18 dBm, no need). In case you are wondering, every 3 dBm is doubled the power, so 13 dBm is twice as much as 10 dBm, & so on; but don't worry, 30 dBm is only 1 watt.

The help file says... * A safe increase of up to 70 would be suitable for most users. Higher power settings are not recommended for users due to excess heat generated by the radio chipset, which can affect the life of the router.

How it works:

The milliwatt (symbol:mW) is equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a watt. A typical laser pointer might output 5 milliwatts.

This setting will determine the number of milliwatts used to power the radio signal output from the router.

TWEAK

wl -i eth1 txpwr 70 #will set your adapter to 70 mW for the 5GHz wl -i eth0 txpwr 70 #will set your adapter to 70 mW for the 2.4GHzwl -i eth1 txpwr1 #check transmitt power for 5 GHzwl -i eth0 txpwr1 #check transmitt power for 2.4 GHz* Buffalo HP units should not exceed about 30 due to their built in amp.
  • Linksys ships out their units with the TX power set to 28 mW by default.
  • mW \ Dbm Power Conversion Table
  • mW -- 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 100
  • DBm -1 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


How to convert dBm to mW

The power conversion of dBm to mW is given by the formula:

P(mW) = 10 ^ (P(dBm) / 10)

So .. 1dBm = 1.258925mW


How to convert mW to dBm

The power conversion of mW to dBm is given by the formula:

P(dBm) = 10 * log10(P(mW) / 1)

On most calculators, log10 would be labeled as LOG.


Conversion Calculator | dBm <--> mW

[edit] Afterburner

Available Settings: Enabled or Disabled

Default Setting: Disabled

Recommended Setting: Enabled if you need the feature, best to get a better router.

The help file says... * This should only be used with WRT54GS Models and only in conjunction with other Linksys "GS" wireless clients that also support Linksys "Speedbooster" technology.

How it works:

Just how do the Super G and Afterburner modes work?

The 125-Mbit/s Afterburner technology uses just one channel. Instead of bonding two channels of data together, it squeezes more data through a single channel by reducing overhead and aggregrating smaller packets of data into larger ones.

In particular, Super G has been criticised in the past for using so much of the Wi-Fi band that other networks in the vicinity, which normally would automatically seek out and use non-overlapping channels to avoid interference problems, could be severely impacted.

By contrast, Super G gets part of its speed increase from "bonding" data from two non-overlapping wireless channels together (normal Wi-Fi uses only 1 out of the 11 channels in the 2.4-GHz range). This channel bonding, though, increases the potential for troublesome interference with microwave ovens, with cell phones and with other Wi-Fi networks (see our feature comparing the different speed boost technologies).

Check if Your Router Supports Afterburner 1.Connect to your router using telnet or ssh. Telnet/SSH and the Command Line 2.Type wl cap and press enter. It will return a list of capabilities. 3.If afterburner is listed you may enable Afterburner on the Advanced Settings tab under Wireless in DD-WRT.

TWEAK

You would enable this feature when you are tring to get all the proformance out of your 2.4GHz network running 802.11g mode or better only and you would only enable Afterburner when your hardware supports afterburner and your enviroment meets the requirements as well.

To set afterburner from the CMD enter the follwoing commands;

wl set wl0_afterburner=on

wl set wl_afterburner=on

-This speed-enhancing feature is available on all DD-WRT enabled G routers. It is hardware independent. Afterburner will only improve speeds when used with clients that also have the Speedbooster/Afterburner feature; use with "normal" 802.11g clients will actually lower performance.

-Afterburner can be used in networks that also have 802.11b devices, and will not disable the use of them.

-Afterburner can help in environments dense with wireless signals.

-Many MiniPCI cards built into notebooks and many PC Cards are based on Broadcom chips whose configurations support Afterburner

-In order to enjoy the benefits of Afterburner a.k.a. SpeedBooster, all clients and the AP must support afterburner.

-About 33 percent faster in real world file transfer test than basic 802.11g mode equipment

-Afterburner is also known as:

SpeedBooster SuperSpeed Turbo G 125mbps 125HSM 125* High Speed G Plus

Afterburner is not: Super-G / 108 mbps (Super-G is an Atheros technology) XPress Technology is Dell's version of Frame Bursting, not Afterburner.

[edit] Bluetooth Coexistence Mode

Available Settings: Enable, Disable, and Preemption

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Preemption

The help file says... *

How it works:

An 802.11 device and Bluetooth can interfere with each other when the 802.11 device operates on the 2.4 GHz band. All Bluetooth devices operate at the 2.4 GHz band. If you experience wireless disconnects, decreased range or speed, and other connectivity issues when you turn on some of your Bluetooth devices, try to change this option to "Enable" (this will make the router and Bluetooth device to take turns in using the spectrum for communication) or "Preemption" (the router will inform the Bluetooth device about the channel it is operating on, and the Bluetooth device can preemptively disable communication on the respective Bluetooth channels). Please note that this option requires your Bluetooth device to "cooperate". If the Bluetooth device doesn't implement the coexistence techniques, using this option will have no effect.

-I have had problems with bluetooth transfers (big big transfers), with this enabled, the problem has been solved.

[edit] Wireless GUI Access

Available Settings: Enable or Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Enable, but largely up to the admin

The help file says... * The setting allows access to the routers setup (GUI) from wireless clients. Disable this if you wish to block all wireless clients from accessing the setup pages.

How it works:

-Once you have your dd-wrt configured you can enable this setting and no wireless clients will be able to access the routers dd-wrt GUI.

-Wireless clients can still access the router over telnet and ssh when this setting is disabled.

-Changing this from the default value would be for security reasons.

[edit] Radio Time Restrictions

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable, if you need it Enable it.

Click the green boxes to disable the wireless router for a given hour, or click the always on or always off buttons. Then click apply. You need to have an ntp server set and the correct timezone on the Setup – Basic Setup page in order for this to work correctly.

[edit] Wireless Multimedia Support Settings

Available Settings:

WMM Support: Enable or Disable

No-Acknowledgement: Enable or Disable

Default Setting:

WMM Support: Enable

No-Acknowledgement: Disable

Recommended Setting:

WMM Support: Enable

No-Acknowledgement: Disable

Short for Wi-Fi Multimedia, is a Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification that provides a basic QoS "best effort" like function to Wi-Fi as well as other functions such as power saving, its a requirement & part of the 802.11n (& newer) specification. Disabling WMM will result in clients (ones that strictly obey specifications which is 90% of them) falling back to 802.11a/g rates (54M), the same way as using TKIP with WPA2 does.

As for the various boxes below that, it would be better to use Quality of Service (QoS) than to start changes those boxes.

[edit]References

Advanced Wireless Settings Reference Guide - http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51039

Categories: Wlan | Advanced tutorials | Settings | Documentation

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Advanced_wireless_settings

You will also like:

QCA wireless settings

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[edit]Introduction

This page shows the contents and descriptions of standard and advanced wireless settings for Qualcomm Atheros (QCA) based 802.11a/b/g/n/ac/ad routers. Not every router shows every possible setting shown here as some routers will have less. If you are a Broadcom or Mediatek (formerly Ralink) user, please refer to Advanced wireless settings for Broadcom/Mediatek wireless settings. Basic Wireless Settings apply to all routers, all of which are listed here under standard settings.

[edit]Standard Settings

[edit]Wireless Physical Interface

Available Interfaces: athX (0, 1, 2 etc, varies by router as many routers have 2 or more radios in them)


If you have a dual band router ath1 will be displayed below ath0 with the same available settings. Ath0 is the 2.4GHz radio and ath1 is the 5GHz radio for most routers, for some like the TL-WDR4900 v1.3, ath0 is 5GHz & ath1 is 2.4GHz; its just the way the radios are connected on the PCB & is normal. If you create a VAP for 2.4GHz or 5GHz radio the VAPs will be labelled athX.1 & athX.1 respectively where X = the interface's number. For example, a VAP made on ath0 will be ath0.1, then ath0.2, etc. Refer to this thread for some info about VAPs with Qualcomm Atheros.


[edit]Wireless Mode

Available Settings: AP, Client, Client Bridge (Routed), AdHoc, WDS Station, WDS AP

Default Setting: AP

Recommended Setting: AP for most users, other options if you are advanced and know you need it


Determines how the specific wireless interface of the router is to behave. If you want to run a normal access point which most do, AP would be your choice. Client, Client Bridge (Routed), & WDS Station is the Qualcomm Atheros equivalent to Broadcom & Mediatek's Repeater and Repeater Bridge modes.

See this page for more info on linking routers: Linking Routers


[edit]Wireless Network Mode

Available Settings (2.4 GHz): Disabled, Mixed, B-Only, G-Only, BG-Mixed, NG-Mixed, N-Only (2.4 GHz)

Available Settings (5 GHz): Disabled, Mixed, A-Only, NA-Mixed, AC/N-Mixed, N-Only (5 GHz), AC-Only

Available Settings (60 GHz): Disabled, Mixed, AD-Only

Default Setting: Mixed

Recommended Setting: NG-Mixed (2.4 GHz), Mixed or AC/N-Mixed (5 GHz), AD-Only (60 GHz)


Controls which 802.11 signals are being broadcast by the radio. Depending on the selected network mode your wireless channel list and maximum TX power can vary. NG-Mixed for 2.4 GHz & Mixed or AC/N-Mixed is the recommended setting for most people as your clients' NICs are able to use either (V)HT20, (V)HT40, & VHT80 "properly" with this setting. If you have any issues or do not use 802.11b clients, switch to NG-Mixed. N-Only is broken on many units for some time (both bands) & still is, try to avoid using as there is minimal performance change from NG-Mixed -> N-Only if all you use is 802.11n clients for either of them. For 802.11a/n 5 GHz radios, Mixed & NA-Mixed are the same.


[edit]Channel Width

This determines the wireless channel width used- where higher values allow more bandwidth/throughput, but yield fewer free channels, and result in more overlapping channels. Using lower MHz channel width values yields more free non-overlapping channels but means less bandwidth/throughput is available. For a full table of possible MCS index connection rates see [1]


BEFORE DOING ANYTHING- MAKE NOTE:

1) Select your country first and YOU MUST HIT APPLY! The driver needs to reconfigure the country for the speific wifi chipset and then the router needs to get the updated channel list for your country

2) Set the Channel Width and hit Save.

3A) Select the correct WiFi "carrier" channel and concurrently go to 3B.

3B) Set the Extension Channel UU, LL, UL, or LU. Make sure to see the list a few sections down for proper extension selection.


Carrier channel is defined as the main 20Mhz channel that "carrying" the signal. Extension channels are then added to yield HT40, VHT80, and VHT160. As of Dec 12 2019, the LL,UU, LU, and UL selections are defined incorrectly. Again, see the extension list below to "select" the "right" option


Available Settings (2.4 GHz): Dynamic (20/40 MHz), Wide HT40* (40 MHz), Full (20 MHz), Half (10 MHz)*, Quarter (5 MHz)*

*Note 1: You MUST have this setting on Wide HT40 (40 MHz) to allow 802.11n devices (2.4 GHz & 5 GHz) to connect at their max!*Note 2&3: Half (10MHz) and Quarter (5MHz) may not be supported on all models. It is best to just use Full (20MHz) or wider.

Available Settings (5 GHz): VHT160*, VHT160 (80+80 MHz)*, VHT80 (80 MHz)*, Dynamic (20/40 MHz), Wide HT40 (40 MHz), Full (20 MHz)

*Note: VHT80 (80 MHz), VHT160 (80+80 MHz), & VHT160 is only displayed & available for 802.11ac (5 GHz) routers that support it, & it's required to reach the max MCS link rates of 802.11ac

*WARNING ABOUT USING VHT160-Using DFS channels can significantly increase 5 GHz association times because devices (STAs) can only passively scan for available APs. So instead of being able to send out a probe request and waiting for APs to reply, a STA using DFS channels must wait until an AP announces itself. You wouldn't think this would make much difference, but when switching from running 2.4 to 5 GHz tests, it took over a minute to find and associate to the router's 5 GHz SSID. IF YOU USE DFS CHANNELS MAKE SURE TO TURN OFF RADAR DETECTION TO AVOID THIS REQUIREMENT'. DON'T BREAK ANY LAWS IF YOU LIVE NEAR A RADAR STATION!


Default Settings (2.4ghz): Full (20 MHz)


Recommended Setting (2.4 GHz): Full (20 MHz)- Why? Because nearly all cell phones and tablets will limit their channel width to only 20MHz if they detect neighboring routers/wifi AP's and so 40MHZ wide communication will not be allowed; even if you enable HT40 on the router. Your mileage may vary by enabling HT40 on the router for phones and tablets. As far as Laptops/Desktops, they usually have a way to allow 40MHz wide channels in the advanced driver settings. Disable "Fat Channel Intolerant" to take advantage of 40MHz on Windows OS's. Using HT40 enables channel bonding by using 2x20 MHz wide channels together to equal 40Mhz; but, it's considered "not neighbor friendly" and discouraged by industry standards- as noted above for android & iPhone HT20 limit. Using HT40 may, but usually doesn't, create more interference for neighbors; it's usually not an issue unless you're in VERY packed/dense/congested wireless area like apartments- Again YMMV with HT40. HT40 allows your 802.11n devices to connect at their max rate: 300 Mbps (2x2:2 stream clients) and 400Mbps (2x2:2) for QAM256 enabled routers & clients. 400Mbps is very rare and was reported on an android device with custom ROM; most everything else will end up using 802.11n MCS rates of 300Mbps. HT40 yields a large throughput increase and enables Atheros Super-G* on legacy clients. However, if Full (20 MHz) is used for 802.11n clients, their max connection speed will only be 144 Mbps (2x2:2 stream clients) and 173Mbps/193Mbps* (2x2:2 stream clients) with QAM256 enabled routers & capable clients. Legacy 802.11g clients supporting Super-G max connection speed will only be 54 Mbps.

*Note: 193mbps is not an officially recognized MCS index rate, but some devices have reported 193mbps vs 173; 173 is the maximum for 2x2:2 stream clients per 802.11ac industry standards.

Recommended Setting (5 GHz): VHT80 (80 MHz), or Wide HT40 (40 MHz). For QCA (wifi 5-wave 2) routers, VHT160 can only be taken advantage of by one Intel Wifi card right now (9260/9265 2x2:2); otherwise, backhaul from one VHT160 capable router to another VHT160 capable router is the other reason to use VHT160 right now. Also to note, VHT160 operates in spectrum which requires reduced TX pwr vs. VHT80: VHT160 spectrum only allows 23dBm vs. 30dBm for VHT80 (USA and similar countries). So, use VHT160 if you know you have clients that can take advantage of it; but realize your TX distance may be worse than if you use VHT80. Also note, it may take up to a minute to find your 5ghz signal if using VHT160 mode.


Lastly, very few clients are 3x3 or 4x4 stream capable; usually only desktop wifi cards are 3x3 or 4x4 (due to space limits in tablets, phones, and laptops & cost of more antenna's). You'll obviously gain more throughput by having 3x3 or 4x4 capable routers & clients. Nearly all phones and tablets are 2x2:2 stream devices, at best, right now (limited room for 4 antenna's & cost too). AFAIK, all laptops use 2x2:2 stream cards; though, apple has a few 3x3:3 stream cards in their devices...use google to find 3x3 or 4x4 stream wifi clients.


[edit]*Super-G

This is a Qualcomm Atheros technology to increase the throughput of 802.11g devices and NOT compatible with 40 MHz channel width in 802.11n. In order to utilize the Super-G feature you must have a QCA router capable of broadcasting 40 MHz wide channels which nearly all QCA routers support this feature, and a Super-G ready client. If you have a QCA router and Super-G ready client, ensure your wireless network mode is on Mixed, G-Only or "NG-Mixed" with Wide HT40 (40 MHz) as the channel width. The client should now connect at the theoretical max link rate of 108 Mbps, doubled that of standard 802.11g 54 Mbps. This feature reaches these speeds by channel bonding, a method that bonds two 20 MHz wide channels together similar to how 802.11n does. Max throughput with Super-G should be around 75 ~ 80 Mbps depending on distance, SNR, noise, & other wireless settings. Super-G has no presence or specific controls on the user interface, its automatically on or off & is a zero config feature.


[edit]Wireless Channel

Available Settings (2.4 GHz): Channels 1 ~ 14 depending on your regulatory domain & channel width

Available Settings (5 GHz): Channels 34 ~ 48 (U-NII-1), 52 ~ 64 (U-NII-2), 100 ~ 144 (U-NII-2e), 149 ~ 161 (U-NII-3), 165 (ISM) depending on your regulatory domain*

Available Settings (60 GHz): Channels 1 ~ 4 depending on your regulatory domain*

Default Setting: Auto NEVER USE AUTO- IT BREAKS OTHER SETTINGS!

Recommended Setting: Use the cleanest channel with the least noise, most stable throughput, & lowest latency jitter


Controls what channel or frequency your wireless LAN (WLAN) uses. If you have packet loss, abnormally slow throughput or drop outs switch to another channel for less interference. Use site survey & experiment with using different channels, its best to use a channel thats 4 or 5 channels away from the other in use channel for zero interference from other WLANs but since thats hard in this small spectrum even just 2 or 1 channel away makes a massive difference despite there still being a partial overlap, see the images & this link for more info. All routers default to either channels 1, 6, or 11 (for 2.4 GHz) when left on the "auto" setting, it is not recommended to use these channels as most users are inexperienced, and leave them at their defaults. Most of these channels are noisy but for any reason if there isn't many APs around you using these channels, use them.

  • Available channels will vary greatly by region & there is no place on Earth where every channel is available legally. Only channels 149-165 allow high TX power up to 30 dBm in most of the world, only a few countries allow 30 dBm from channel 100+, using a foreign regulatory setting to bypass your local laws is not recommended & is at your own risk. As of 2014 the FCC has announced that the lower 5 GHz band (U-NII-1) will have it's "indoor only" requirement lifted, & max power output/EIRP increased to 24 dBm.

[edit]Extension Channel

Available Settings (40 MHz): Upper, lower

Available Settings (80 MHz): UU, LL, UL, LU

Available Settings (160 MHz): UUU, LLL, ULU, LUL, UUL, LLU

Available Settings (60 GHz): TODO

Default Setting: Auto

Recommended Setting: Any* (valid setting, observe below)

For the lists below, Builds >=42359, LU/UL & VHT160 ULU/LUL/UUL/LLU are now VALID in describing where the center frequency sits. Any build prior to 42359 will need to select the opposite of what the list below says; so, LU=UL and UL=LU in builds earlier than 42359. For WDS setups, even selecting the opposite UL/LU will still result in the wrong center frequency being used. Simply, you'll need to use a more recent build.

Also, builds prior to 42174 have bunked VHT80 & VHT160 modes where your channel selection and extension channel may not actually yield your selection. This was fixed after 42174


This setting is only valid when Wide HT40 (40 MHz), VHT80 (80 MHz), VHT160 (80+80 MHz) or VHT160 (160 MHz) is used for channel width. It controls the extension channel(s), which is the other channel(s) used to attain the 40 MHz width or in the case of 802.11ac, 80/160 MHz width the other 3 channels, are above &/or below the primary selected channel. Build r29974 & later have fixed the extension channel lower setting, use upper or lower depending which channel you want. Builds older than r29974 have problems with ext channel setting & channel selection list. Builds after r31277 have added full range of upper/lower & in between, options for channel widths above 40 MHz for 802.11ac.


Valid VHT80 channels are:

  • 36+UU
  • 40+UL
  • 44+LU
  • 48+LL
  • 52+UU
  • 56+UL
  • 60+LU
  • 64+LL
  • 100+UU
  • 104+UL
  • 108+LU
  • 112+LL
  • 116+UU
  • 120+UL
  • 124+LU
  • 128+LL
  • 132+UU
  • 136+UL
  • 140+LU
  • 144+LL
  • 149+UU
  • 153+UL
  • 157+LU
  • 161+LL


Valid VHT160 channels are:

  • 36+UUU
  • 40+UUL
  • 44+ULU
  • 48+ULL
  • 52+LUU
  • 56+LUL
  • 60+LLU
  • 64+LLL
  • 100+UUU
  • 104+UUL
  • 108+ULU
  • 112+ULL
  • 116+LUU
  • 120+LUL
  • 124+LLU
  • 128+LLL
    • DFS Channels are 52-144. This means that you might have clients that won't work on these channels because they have been hard coded not to. Your Mileage may vary.

*WARNING ABOUT USING DFS Channels: Using DFS can significantly increase 5 GHz association times because devices (STAs) can only passively scan for available APs. So instead of being able to send out a probe request and waiting for APs to reply, a STA using DFS channels must wait until an AP announces itself. You wouldn't think this would make much difference, but when switching from running 2.4 to 5 GHz tests, it took over a minute to find and associate to the router's 5 GHz SSID. IF YOU USE DFS CHANNELS MAKE SURE TO TURN OFF RADAR DETECTION TO AVOID THIS REQUIREMENT. DON'T BREAK ANY LAWS IF YOU LIVE NEAR A RADAR STATION!

See This ChartDFS Part 1DFS Part 2DFS Part 3

  • Of course, All of this depends on the regulatory domain & client devices you select in the GUI.

[edit]TurboQAM (QAM256) support

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Enable


Only valid for 2.4 GHz & for routers with QCA99xx & newer radios, this setting enables support for QAM256, which is what 802.11ac uses for its more efficient higher link rates, even at the same channel width. Since this is only an option in 2.4 GHz, full (20 mHz) or HT40 widths can be used; HT40 will yield the best MCS speeds vs Full. If the signal is strong enough, higher QAM allows more efficient use of the same spectrum space; again, for devices that support this feature.

When using a VAP (virtual access point) with a TurboQAM enabled radio, there is a minor bug which the VAP will, by default, not have TurboQAM enabled. To fix this go to the Wireless Security tab, and enter, on a seperate line, "vendor_vht=1" under the VAP's custom config box. This only works on routers that have a TurboQAM option, in the first place, for the main interface in wireless settings.


[edit]Wireless Network Name (SSID)

Default Setting: ddwrt


This is where you can choose the name of your wireless network when its being broadcast to roaming clients. You can name this anything you want.

Best practice is to name both 2.4GHz and 5Ghz the same SSID and use the same password for both bands. This helps "improve coverage" because your client will switch over to 2.4GHz from 5Ghz faster than if you used a separate 5GHz SSID; you're already authenticated on both radios. Using the same SSID helps reduce overhead on the router too. That said, you need to set the beacon interval carefully if you use the same SSID. Whichever radio has the lower beacon interval will result in clients "seeing" that radio first. So if you want your client to prefer 5Ghz first, then set the beacon interval lower on the 5GHz radio. That said, this is not a foolproof "fix" and many clients may struggle staying or coming back to 5GHz when in range if they venture over to 2.4GHz. This is a well known issue on phone/tablet devices. Laptops have a setting in advanced driver settings to prefer one band over the other. Most newer builds of Android wont have this band preference feature anymore. So, if you must have 5GHz, or 2.4GHz, then name the SSID's differently but know that your device will take longer to fall back to 2.4GHz because it has to re-authenticate when the 5GHz signal gets too weak.


[edit]Wireless SSID Broadcast

Available Settings: Enable, disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Enable


Dependent on the setting above, this controls if your SSID is being broadcast or not. When disable is selected many clients still pick up the beacon and display it as "Hidden" along with the AP's MAC address. Disabling is not recommended as it hardly does anything for security, a determined intruder can still access your network with different methods.


[edit]Advanced Settings

  • Builds >=r14815 have a checkbox to show or hide advanced wireless settings.

[edit]Regulatory Domain

Available Settings: 115+ different countries (several countries share the same regulations)

Default Setting: Germany


This determines the channels available in the list for both bands (if you have a dual band router) and the maximum EIRP "legally" allowed by the telecom authorities in the chosen country. EIRP is TX power plus antenna gain, example:

  • 20 dBm TX power with a 10 dBi gain antenna has an EIRP of 30 dBm.
  • 24 dBm TX power with a 6 dBi gain antenna has an EIRP of 30 dBm.


Maximum EIRP varies by nation and your max TX power will be capped by the regulatory domain if you have a powerful radio. For example, Canada's max allowed EIRP is 36 dBm while its max allowed TX power is 30 dBm, with Canada selected and antenna gain at 0 dBi, the radios will never go above 30 dBm assuming they are capable of reaching that of course.


[edit]TX Power

Available Settings: 0 ~ 999

Default Setting: 16 ~ 30 dBm (varies by router)

Recommended Setting: Highest dBm your radios & local laws legally allow**

Read this post about TX Power FirstTABLE OF MAX TX RATE Vs. Country

Transmit (TX) power is the amount of "current" or "juice" going to the antennas, it is NOT the output power FROM the antennas, as that is EIRP. Usually more TX power is better as it allows clients further away to "hear" your AP (assuming the clients also have near equal TX power so the AP can "hear" them back). If TX power is increased too much on older radios, excess noise can develop and reduce throughput or even range; this is an issue with most Broadcom routers. But with Qualcomm Atheros this does not seem to be much of a problem as most QCA radios work very well at their max TX power. Maximum TX power is controlled by the radios (power control*), regulatory domain, wireless channel used, & wireless channel width. The default value for most routers currently is 20 dBm. If you want to run the highest TX power possible, enter 30 dBm & the radios will use as high as their lowest limiter allows (being regulatory domain, channel, or radio EEPROM cap), most can't do 30 dBm so what's displayed on the wireless status page is what's being used. Wifi-5 (previously 802.11ac) and Wifi-6 (previously 802.11ax) Routers are capable of doing 30 dBm (1W, 1000mW), currently the highest allowed TX power for any regulatory domain.


*Power control

An automatic zero config feature which controls the max TX power by the SNR & link speed. The higher the SNR, the lower the TX power will be (this action does not display on the wireless status GUI). See vendor specs/FCC documents for more info.


**Recommended Setting

Some people believe that "high" TX power (i.e., greater than 25 dBm), may be of concern to one's health. That is not the case but each to their own. So if that's you then 22 - 25 dBm should be sufficient; any lower & range starts to significantly drop (unless you want to of course & if you have an older router than only does something like 18 dBm, no need). In case you are wondering, every 3 dBm is doubled the power, so 13 dBm is twice as much as 10 dBm, & so on; but don't worry, 30 dBm is only 1 watt.


[edit]Antenna Gain

Available Settings: 0 ~ 999

Default Setting: 0 dBi

Recommended Setting: 0 dBi


Antenna gain is amount of "gain" or "boost" of signal that the antenna provides. Its a bit complicated but remember this, antennas are not amplifiers. They do not magnify the signal, but instead "focus" the signal in certain directions, yes even omni-directional antennas do it. The higher the gain the better as it increases EIRP which somewhat helps extend range and significantly helps sensitivity. With high sensitivity, the AP is able to hear "faint" clients, clients that may have a low TX power or are just simply very far away. Set this to 0 as its useless, it does not function anymore & always assumes a value of 0 within the wireless drivers.

Normally it would function as so: take gain into consideration when calculating EIRP, depending on regulatory setting an example of 25 dBm EIRP (20 dBm TX power + 5 dBi gain) may be too high when the limit is lets say 22 dBm EIRP, the TX power in this case will be forced down to 17 dBm. Antenna gain setting has no effect on performance of the WLAN directly (but a physical quality high gain aftermarket antenna does!).


[edit]U-APSD (Automatic Power Save)

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Does not currently matter


U-APSD is a power-save mechanism that is an optional part of the IEEE amendment 802.11e/QoS. U-APSD is also known as WMM Power Save. It is basically a feature mode that allows your mobile devices to save more battery while connected to your wifi network. By allowing your mobile devices to enter standby or sleep mode, it conserves battery. The APSD allows smooth transition in and out of sleep mode by allowing the mobile devices to signal the router of its status.

There are two types of APSD that goes under this type of battery power saving feature.


U-APSD (Unscheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery): Your client devices signal the router to transmit any buffered data.


S-APSD (scheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery): the Access Point will send buffered data based on a predetermined schedule known to the power-saving device without any signal from the station device.


This setting is currently forcefully disabled for unknown reasons in wireless drivers/firmware and has no functionality.


[edit]Spatial Multiplex Power Save

Available Settings: Off, Static

Default Setting: Off

Recommended Setting: Off*


The purpose of Spatial Multiplex Power Save (SM power save) is to allow a MIMO 802.11 device to power down all but one of its radios. For example, a 4×4 MIMO device with four radio chains would power down three of the four radios, thus conserving power.


SM power save defines two methods of operation:

Static, a MIMO client station powers down all the client’s radios except for one single radio. Effectively, the MIMO client station is now the equivalent of a SISO radio that is capable of sending and receiving only one spatial stream. The client uses an SM power save action frame to inform the access point that the MIMO client is using only one radio and is capable of receiving only one spatial stream from the AP.


The SM power save action frame is also used to tell the AP that the client station has powered up all of its radios and now is capable of transmitting and receiving multiple spatial streams once again.


Dynamic, a MIMO client can also power down all but one of the client’s radios but can power up the radios again much more rapidly. The client station disables all but one of the radios after a frame exchange. An access point can trigger the client to wake up the sleeping radios by sending a request-to-send (RTS) frame. The client station receives the RTS frame, powers up the sleeping radios, and sends a clear-to-send (CTS) frame back to the access point. The client can now once again transmit and receive multiple spatial streams. The client uses an SM power save action frame to inform the AP of the client’s dynamic power save state.

  • There are several stations, such as a WDS setup, where their TX rates will not return to MIMO rates when under load, thus limiting throughput, so start with this off and test to see if all devices work properly with this on. If dynamic is not in the selection, it means its not supported on the the current router at this time, sadly dynamic is the better of the two.

[edit]Noise Immunity

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Disable*


Controls radio sensitivity in noisy environments by tuning driver parameters from info based on but not limited to, OFDM/CCK errors, beacon RSSI levels, OFDM weak detection, FIRPWR, FIRSTEP_LEVEL, CYCPWR_THR1. The goal of noise immunity is in the name, to help make the router more "immune" to noise, its generally recommended to leave this disabled, only enable if you are an advanced user, are diagnosing various wireless issues, or it fixes a specific issue you were having. Especially if you have multiple Qualcomm Atheros routers connected to each other in any way, its highly recommended to have noise immunity enabled, or disabled on all routers, but not mixed. There has been some reports over the years that disabling noise immunity has helped stabilize the WLAN in terms of throughput &/or reducing dropouts, disabling noise immunity could also result in great or unchanged close range performance, but horrible or no throughput whatsoever, at medium ~ far range, so experiment with this setting. There is also some cases where enabling noise immunity gives abnormally low TX/RX rates & throughput, or noise immunity is simply too aggressive even in low noise, in this case, disable the feature.

*Noise Immunity is a QCA feature meant for QCA clients, so Broadcom clients may not play nice if you enable this feature. If you have a lot of iOS devices in your environment, make sure to disable noise immunity.


[edit]QCA Q-Boost / TDMA support

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable

This setting is only available to routers with QCA99xx chipsets.

This is a completely experimental setting and has been found to significantly lower channel quality and add extra network overhead to perform TDMA. Your client must have the ability to take advantage of this feature. Right now, DON'T play with this unless you really know what you are doing; you will impact the wifi network and spectrum of other devices in the radius of the router using Q-boost. Initial testing shows this feature starts off fine, and then starts to impact wifi & spectrum in a negative fashion (Floods the network & spectrum with overhead noise). BS admits this is an experimental feature which may be removed at some point.


[edit]Protection Mode

Available Settings: None, CTS, RTS/CTS

Default Setting: None

Recommended Setting: RTS/CTS* or None for AP modes, & RTS/CTS for client modes


This setting controls whether the request to send/clear to send 802.11 optional protection mechanism is enabled or disabled. When enabled, an RTS/CTS handshake must be completed before data can be transmitted from clients. Helpful in noisy &/or busy environments, it ensures all clients take turns communicating with the AP, if disabled, packet collisions may occur which causes a drop in throughput & increase in latency due to retransmission overhead. RTS/CTS also helps negate the hidden node problem which occurs when 2 or more clients can each see the AP & vice versa, but the clients can't see eachother, this example is also good to say why RTS/CTS on an AP has no use, since from the AP's point of view, it can already see all connected clients, or they wouldn't be connected in the first place. CTS only is "CTS-to-self" which has less overhead, but is less effective in mitigating the hidden node issue, only other clients within range of the client using CTS only, will hear & honor it while RTS/CTS is the "full option" that gets passed through the AP to all clients, even if the AP has RTS/CTS disabled since RTS/CTS on the AP only applies to when the AP wants to transmit.

RTS/CTS is a setting to experiment with especially on the client mode interface of the router if you are connecting a router to another router, or if you have high error rate or high noise floor (-90 noise is good, -60 is bad) & all other options have failed. Most users should leave this set to the recommended setting above for max performance because the protection mechanism is only enabled automatically when needed, if its off when its needed, your wireless performance can plummet with errors, disconnects & low throughput, & if its no longer needed its turned off automatically on the fly.


If all that wasn't enough, protection modes also matter depending if you are using any kind of mixed modes such as mixed or NG-mixed, & if the older clients are connected or not. As well if you are using HT40 or VHT80 when there will be clients connected that don't support above HT20. In such case, you MAY want to have some protection mode, but usually with today's routers you are able to mix client types without penalty. If performance is good still without protection, continue to use none.


*Possible Tip-If you have a lot of iOS devices in your environment, make sure to enable RTS/CTS, enable RTS Threshold, and set RTS threshold value to 980.


[edit]RTS Threshold

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable (Enabled is @ 500 & way too low so set to 980)

Recommended Setting: Enable @ 2346 or Disable for AP modes, Enable (980 - 1500, or slightly lower if NEEDED) for client modes


Only valid if RTS/CTS or CTS is enabled, this sets the maximum packet size before the RTS/CTS protection is enabled, if you still have high packet collisions with RTS/CTS enabled and RTS Threshold is at 2346, try lowering it by 10-50 at a time. Lowering it too much can further create overhead and reduce performance as RTS/CTS frames themselves also take up air time & aren't immune to collisions, a good limit is 980, going any lower than 600 - 800 & you'll probably spend more air time transmitting & exchanging these frames than the actual data frame themselves, nullifying any benefit it could of provided as a large amount of the client's communication frames to the AP are <500 ~ 600 bytes at a time. Setting this to 2346 theoretically disables the RTS feature and only leaves CTS enabled as most packets don't exceed 2346 bytes.


[edit]Short Preamble

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Enable


If you have 802.11b clients in your network you can try enabling this, but if they have problems with performance or connecting, then leave it disabled. Preamble is at the head or front of the PLCP, which devices need in order to start transferring data. The long preamble ensures compatibility with legacy 802.11b devices but will slightly reduce throughput at higher data rates along with possibly introducing WLAN instability &/or overhead. Short preamble support, which is reducing the header's size by 50% down to 9 bytes, is optional for 802.11b. 802.11g & newer all support short preamble as its part of specification, so if you do not have 802.11b devices in your network, or any that you may have work fine with short preamble, leave this enabled at all times.


[edit]Short GI

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Enable


The standard guard interval used in 802.11 OFDM is 0.8 μs, to increase data rate 802.11n added optional support for a shorter 0.4 μs guard interval which provides about a 10% increase in data rate. The shorter guard interval could (but usually doesn't) result in a higher packet error rate if timing synchronization between the transmitter and receiver is not precise. To reduce complexity, short guard interval is only implemented as a final rate adaptation step when the device is running at its highest data rate such as 72 Mbps, 144 Mbps, 300 Mbps etc, this is by design & not changeable.

Older routers & devices with Atheros AR92XX radios or older only support short GI on HT40 & not HT20, so max HT20 rates are 65 Mbps/130 Mbps/195 Mbps (1x1/2x2/3x3) instead of 72 Mbps/144 Mbps/217 Mbps respectively. Some modern devices such as the Playstation 4 do not like the lack of short GI, & have strange performance problems, sometimes completely crippling the entire network's performance. But the issue may also be related to hardware bugs in the AR92XX chipset, mileage may vary.


[edit]Single User Beamforming

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Enable


Controls whether 802.11ac beamforming is enabled for single user, aka "regular MIMO" connected devices that support beamforming. For 2.4 GHz, beamforming is only supported & broadcasted in beacon info when TurboQAM is enabled.


[edit]Multi User Beamforming

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Disable


Controls whether 802.11ac beamforming is enabled for multi user, "MU-MIMO" connected devices that support beamforming. Since MU-MIMO is a 802.11ac wave 2 feature, all wave 2 devices will support beamforming & MU-MIMO. For 2.4 GHz, beamforming is only supported & broadcasted in beacon info when TurboQAM is enabled and supported by QAM256 clients. MU-MIMO has been found to affect Broadcom clients and might limit them to only a 1x1:1 stream. Play with this at your own risk and check connection rates before and after enabling.


[edit]TX & RX Antenna Chains

Available Settings: 1, 1+2, 1+3, 1+2+3, 1+2+3+4 (varies by router)

Default Setting: Varies by router

Recommended Setting: Varies by router


This setting is critical for proper, smooth, fast Wi-Fi performance. 2x2:2 routers will either have TX/RX chains at 1+2/1+2, 1+3/1+3, 1+2/1+3, or 1+3/1+2. This can take some time to find the proper setting but its worth it, you can more easily find the correct setting by using a 802.11n client thats capable of 300 Mbps link. Note the TX/RX link rates on the wireless status page, when set incorrectly one or both of the rates will drop to a much lower speed such as 200, 170, 81 etc. This is best done with the client less than 10 feet from the AP with clear line of sight. Some routers with chains set incorrectly such as D-Link DIR-615 C1, will deny connections to clients, heavily reduce throughput, and other errors. Searching the FCC ID of your router will aid in setting the correct chain settings. Some popular routers such as the Netgear WNDR3700 v1/2/4 and D-Link DIR-825 B1/B2 require both chains set at 1+2 for proper Wi-Fi performance. Default is not always right!*


*With builds around r21061 or later, most units have the proper defaults preset & invalid options removed, such as 1+2+3 for TX/RX on WNDR3700 v1, v2, & v4 as the router only has 2 chains each therefor only has 1 & 1+2 available to be selected. While a TL-WDR4900 v1.3 & v2 have 1+2+3 as they are 3x3:3 units. An example 4x4:4 unit is the R7800.


[edit]AP Isolation

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable for private home Wi-Fi with trusted users, enable for public/guest Wi-Fi hotspot


AP Isolation allows clients connected to the same AP to communicate with each other or not, very much like Ad-Hoc mode. If you run a public Wi-Fi hotspot its recommended you enable this for privacy/security reasons & to help mitigate Wi-Fi snooping attacks that reveal login info such as this. If you want files to be shared from client to client in your home network, AP isolation must be disabled. This setting does not influence Wi-Fi throughput. If this setting is enabled it will break AdHoc based play on gaming devices such as Nintendo's DS system.


[edit]Beacon Interval

Available Settings: 15 ~ 65535

Default Setting: 100

Recommended Setting: 300 ~ 600 for 2.4 GHz & 300 ~ 600 for 5 GHz (Use 300 for the primary radio and 400 for the secondary and use DTIM=1 for these higher beacon intervals) READ THIS POST & SEE WHY (scroll up slightly when the new link opens)

Warning- Setting the beacon <100 might lead to issues if you use a virtual access point due to how the driver for ath10k is written. If you plan to ever use a VAP, do not set the beacon to <100.

A beacon frame, a time unit, is one of the management frames in IEEE 802.11 WLANs. It contains all the information about the network & has a close relationship to the setting below it, DTIM interval. Beacon frames are transmitted periodically by the AP in an infrastructure BSS to announce the presence of a WLAN. Reducing beacon interval may help WLAN performance in noisy environments &/or with problematic clients; but, will decrease battery life. 100 is a typical time unit used by many manufacturers. Increasing beacon interval will slightly reduce overhead & increase battery life. "Overhead," when referring to beacon interval, is airtime. Beacons themselves also take up airtime which means less availability for data. For 5 GHz some routers default to 200 beacon interval such as the DIR-825 B1 stock firmware, DD-WRT default is 100 for both bands. Remember to adjust DTIM interval too when you change the beacon interval. You don't want your beacon interval to exceed 1000 in total time, or you risk having your clients drop off wifi beacause your router cannot "locate" the client.

There is a belief, not-validated-but theory, that you should use Prime numbers for your beacon interval so that they never overlap with neighboring access points. Additionally, if you are using the same SSID for 2.4ghz and 5ghz, you need to carefully set the beacon interval. If you want clients to see, and use, 5ghz first, then set that beacon interval to something lower than the 2.4ghz beacon interval. If you want clients to see, and use, 2.4ghz first, then set that beacon interval to something lower than the 5ghz beacon. Ex: 5ghz to be seen first- set beacon to 449 and 2.4ghz beacon to 523.

Here is a quick list of prime numbers:101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199, 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241, 251, 257, 263, 269, 271, 277, 281, 283, 293, 307, 311, 313, 317, 331, 337, 347, 349, 353, 359, 367, 373, 379, 383, 389, 397, 401, 409, 419, 421, 431, 433, 439, 443, 449, 457, 461, 463, 467, 479, 487, 491, 499, 503, 509, 521, 523, 541, 547, 557, 563, 569, 571, 577, 587, 593, 599, 601

If you stumbled on this and are using marvell hardware, please stick to using 100 as the B.I. (increments of 100 may also work, but not confirmed).

Again, YMMV using a prime number for the beacon interval. Some clients will only allow increments of 50 used, so stick with the above 300 or 400 values. If your client runs into issues, try 200 as your setting as some clients only like 200 with DTIM=1.


[edit]DTIM Interval

Available Settings: 1 ~ 255

Default Setting: 2

Recommended Setting: 2 ~ 5 (assuming default beacon interval of 100 is used)


Default being 2, the delivery traffic indication message (DTIM) is an element included in some beacon frames. It notifies the client stations that are currently in low-power mode that data buffered on the access point is awaiting pickup. The DTIM interval indicates how often clients serviced by the access point should check for buffered data, the buffered data is usually multicast/broadcast data. You specify DTIM in number of beacons. If you set this value to 2, clients check for buffered data on the AP on every beacon. If you set this value to 10, clients check the access point on every 10th beacon, this is assuming beacon interval is at the default of 100. 100 beacon & 1 DTIM = every beacon that occurs every 0.1 seconds will have a DTIM with it, beacon of 50 with 2 DTIM also = every beacon that occurs every 0.1 seconds will have a DTIM with it, & so on. More beacons/DTIMs in a shorter period can help multicast performance but hurt battery, less beacons/DTIM in a longer period may harm multicast performance, but help battery. The defaults are a good medium & are commonly used by stock firmwares on cheap & expensive routers world wide, this setting will require extensive testing if you wish to alter it.


[edit]Airtime Fairness

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Enable


Airtime Fairness is a feature that boosts the overall network performance by sacrificing a little bit of network time on your slowest devices (A/B/G, even N when compared to AC). The slower Wi-Fi devices can be slow from either long physical distance, weak signal strength, or simply being a legacy device using an older standard. Example; Device A, functioning at 1 Mb/s and a faster device, B, that transmits at 5 Mb/s. If A needs to transmit 10 Mb of data, it will take 10 seconds. This means that for B to start data transmission after A, it may need to wait the full 10 seconds before A finishes it's transmission. Airtime fairness will give each device a fair amount of time. Instead of mostly or all air time to one device.


[edit]Frame Compression

Available Settings: Disabled, LZO, LZ4, LZMA

Default Setting: Disabled

Recommended Setting: Disabled (does not currently function regardless of setting)


Compresses Wi-Fi packets using any of the offered standard compression algorithms. Smaller frames over the air means less airtime which could result in more performance, but beware compression uses CPU time, weaker CPU + higher (AC+) rates will be taxing on the CPU and a CPU too slow will instead make performance &/or latency worse.

This setting is still currently broken and does not function.


[edit]WMM Support

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Enable

Recommended Setting: Enable


Short for Wi-Fi MultiMedia, is a Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification that provides a basic QoS "best effort" like function to Wi-Fi as well as other functions such as power saving, its a requirement & part of the 802.11n (& AC & AX) specification. Disabling WMM will result in clients (ones that strictly obey specifications which is 90% of them) falling back to 802.11a/g LEGACY rates (54M), the same way as using TKIP with WPA2 yields LEGACY rates.


[edit]Radar Detection

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disabled for most users. Enabled to comply with regulations where applicable.


Radar detection (AKA DFS: Dynamic Frequency Selection), if enabled, will change the frequency only when it identifies a military or doppler weather radar nearby on the same frequency. Most users shouldn't have any interference issues even those living near such locations. This applies to 5 GHz a/n/ac only.


[edit]ScanList

Default Setting: default


The frequency range in MHz, to be used by wireless radio (superchannel use requires this as they are non standard channels) & when searching for nearby APs, seperated by a dash (ie: "2600-2700" without quotes). Specially useful when using SuperChannel feature. Leave this at the default value (empty) unless you know what it does.


[edit]Sensitivity Range (ACK Timing)

Available Settings: 0 (auto ACK- athk9k only) ~ 999999 (meters)

Default Setting: Was 2000 (which likely defaults to 2250), now it's set too low at 500 on Builds >=42516.

Recommended Setting: 900 or 1350* for both bands, greater than 2250 (Old Ath10k default) only when needed for long distance link. "0" uses auto ACK mode on ath9k chipsets, it dynamically changes to try and settle on what the driver thinks is best, which may become too high, and may cause bad Wi-Fi performance. Using auto ack for long distances is recommended. The ath10k chipset presently can't auto-tune the ack timing and will default to whatever is baked into the firmware by QCA: 450m. BS is still working on the code for ath10k to make it dynamically tune-able. Using "0" on ath10k chipsets will cause the GUI to show N/A under the wifi status window; but, in reality the chipset is using the value baked in to the firmware= 450m.


ACK timing too low, with clients further away, causes re-transmissions which create overhead,which lowers throughput. The AP sends a packet and all clients must wait for XXX time, where XXX is the ACK timing, the client then receives that packet and responds to the AP with an ACK(nowledgement), AP sees the client then finally everyone is free to transmit again.

From BS: "Setting a too high ACK value is never a problem and its unrelated to chipsets. All chipsets use ack timing mechanisms. Just not every chipset allows you to configure it; thus, it has no compatibility issues between QCA & Broadcom chipsets. If my AP sends a packet and the packet does not get a response, within the specified ack timing (ack timing is a round trip internally), it gets re-transmitted. So, if you set a too high ack timing, but you have very bad signal conditions, it will decrease the performance a little bit since it waits longer until a re-transmission occurs. However, if you set a too low setting (important at long range links) almost every packet gets re-transmitted which leads to massive packet loss. In most cases you cannot even authenticate with wpa."

Most users want to use 900, or 1800; the distance used is meters and needs to be double the distance of the furthest client from the AP (plus some headroom). Doubled because the signal travels to the client and back, thus ack timing = double the distance. In earlier builds with the older MADWIFI driver reducing ACK from default 2000 to 1500 gave a throughput increase of 0.5 Mbps - 1 Mbps. With the current ath9k builds, an ACK timing of 0 is now auto ACK mode, which you do not want to use for indoor/home use, use a fixed setting. But remember, ACK timing too low can cause issues such as cutting off a still active/in progress transmission, causing a re-transmission that's only half way to the destination, clashes with the returning ACK of the first transmission, when the device is beyond the current set ACK range. This usually only happens with hidden nodes &/or clients that are distanced very far away/beyond ACK timing's set range but not always.

Long distance links, such as 4 KM+ will need to increase this setting accordingly. 4000m for 2km, 6000m for 3km, and so on, its good practice to add a little more ~5% or so, than the exact needed value to account for any overhead (CTS etc).

  • Current ath9k firmware only uses ACK timing in 450m intervals when using "0" (auto ACK),: so 450, 900, 1350, 1800, 2250 & so on. You can set any value you want, but the value may not stick depending on the chipset and ath9k will revert to a multiple of 450. For Ath10k, you can set any value you want, but if you use 0 then it will use the chipset firmware default of 450, so don't use 0 on ath10k. For most home/indoor use, 450m (225m one way/729ft one way) should be far enough. But, to be safe use a higher value like 900 or 1800. And last, setting it high at 3150 or 3600 has no discernible negative affect.
    • 802.11g mode with a DWA-542 NIC got 21 Mbps with default 2250m on a TL-WDR4900 v1.3 with the latest build as of this posting (r27240), with ACK at 900m that rose to 22 Mbps & is mostly repeatable. Your results will vary depending on router, channel, clients & interference. Users in heavy interference areas may benefit from leaving ACK timing slightly higher (such as 900 or 1800 instead of 450 etc), since there will be an increased number of clashed packets & retransmissions.

[edit]Minimum Signal for authenticate

Available Settings: -128 ~ 0

Default Setting: -128

Recommended Setting: Default for having the feature disabled, or enter any minimum value if desired


This setting is for the minimum (weakest) signal allowed with a client device to be allowed to authenticate (security check) with the router. If the signal is below (EG: -60 is weaker than -45) the specified value, the client device will be denied.


[edit]Minimum Signal for connection

Available Settings: -128 ~ 0

Default Setting: -128

Recommended Setting: Default for having the feature disabled, or enter any minimum value if desired


Exactly the same function as minimum signal for authentication, but for allowing connection, after authentication.


[edit]Poll Time for signal lookup

Available Settings: 1 ~ 3600

Default Setting: 10

Recommended Setting: Whatever suits you


This is the interval in seconds, that the router checks client device signal & compares the result to the specified minimum allowed signal to decide if the device should be kicked from the network or not.


[edit]Amount of allowed low signals

Available Settings: 1 ~ 60

Default Setting: 3

Recommended Setting: Whatever suits you


This setting specifies how many times or "strikes" a device can get, before the specified minimum signal rules are enforced. EG: If defaults are used except minimum signal is -50 for both, if a device is detected having a signal lower than -50 X number of times over the specified value for this setting, the device will be disconnected from the router. Like a "X amount of strikes and you are out" rule.


[edit]Max Associated Clients

Available Settings: 1 ~ 256

Default Setting: 128 ~ 256 (varies by router)

Recommended Setting: What suits you


Determines the maximum number of clients that can be connected to the AP at any given time. Hotspot users will find this very handy. Using a shorter DHCP lease time such as 2 ~ 12 hours instead of default 24 will also help free up IPs if you are finding 256 users is not enough for a large public hotspot.


[edit]MTik Compatibility

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable


It activates a beta WDS compatibility with Mikrotik RouterOS. It's almost useless. Only use it when you're testing stuff from DD-WRT or using Mikrotik RouterOS.


[edit]Multicast To Unicast

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable


Request that the AP will do multicast-to-unicast conversion for ARP, IPv4, and IPv6 frames. If enabled, such frames are to be sent to each station separately, with the DA replaced by their own MAC address rather than the group address. Note that this may break certain expectations of the receiver, such as the ability to drop unicast IP packets received within multicast L2 frames, or the ability to not send ICMP destination unreachable messages for packets received in L2 multicast (which is required, but the receiver can't tell the difference if this new option is enabled). Enable only if you have issues detecting devices on the network that are connected over Wi-Fi, such as security camers, printers, and any type of "Smart" devices.


[edit]Network Configuration

Available Settings: Unbridged, Bridged

Default Setting: Bridged

Recommended Setting: Bridged


This setting controls if the wireless interface is "bridged" with the LAN ports. Bridged meaning a client on the wireless interface and a client on the Ethernet LAN interface are on the same network on the same subnet. Unbridged allows you to "separate" the WLAN (wireless LAN) by giving it its own subnet and even its own DHCP server. If you want a unbridged interface, you are better off creating a VAP instead of unbridging the main interface.


[edit]Wireless Security

[edit]802.11r / Fast BSS Transition

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable*

In the early days of 802.11, handoff was a much simpler task for the mobile device. Only four messages were required for the device to establish a connection with a new access point (five if you count the optional "I'm leaving" message (deauthentication and disassociation packet) the client could send to the old access point). However, as additional features were added to the standard, including 802.11i with 802.1X authentication and 802.11e or WMM with admission control requests, the number of messages required went up dramatically. During the time these additional messages are being exchanged, the mobile device's traffic, including that from voice calls, cannot proceed, and the loss experienced by the user could amount to several seconds. Generally, the highest amount of delay or loss that the edge network should introduce into a voice call is 50 ms. This means that your wifi call would be dropped moving from AP to AP because the handshake to the new AP takes too long.

802.11r was launched to attempt to undo the added burden that security and quality of service added to the handoff process, and restore it to the original four-message exchange. In this way, handoff problems are not eliminated, but at least are returned to the status quo.

The primary application currently envisioned for the 802.11r standard is voice over IP (VOIP) via mobile phones designed to work with wireless Internet networks, instead of (or in addition to) standard cellular networks.

When you enable this feature the gui will load some new values to fill in: NAS Identifier & Mobility Domain.


[edit]NAS Identifier

The NAS ID is your router's wireless radio's MAC address without the ":";so 12:34:56:78:90:AA would be entered as 1234567890AA.


[edit]Mobility Domain

The Mobility domain is a 4 digit hex key you can make up. Just use 0013 for now. More research needs to go in to what these values really "should" be and why.

If the wifi is going to be on the same subnet &/or vlan, make sure to use the same mobility domain value for both radios; and, make sure the mobility domain is different from the other wifi vlan you might end up implementing.


[edit]802.11w Frame Protection

Available Settings: Enable, Disable, Auto

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable


If you use 802.11r, this feature is broken and won't work. Right now don't use this feature unless you know what you are doing.


[edit]Disable EAPOL Key Retries

Available Settings: Enable, Disable

Default Setting: Disable

Recommended Setting: Disable


An AP-side workaround for key reinstallation attacks (KRACK), this option can be used to mitigate KRACK on the station side (router), to help protect client devices that no longer receive updates, or receive updates very slowly. Since many devices out there will not receive an update anytime soon (if at all), it makes sense to include this workaround. Unfortunately this can cause interoperability issues and reduced robustness of key negotiation, hence the default setting of disabled. This workaround is NOT needed on current builds (newer than r33555) & if you know that your client devices are updated to patch KRACK on them already, or if the vulnerability doesn't bother you. KRACK is already fixed in DD-WRT "properly" in both AP mode, & station mode (client/client bridge/WDS).


Categories: Atheros | Wlan | Documentation | Tutorials

Sours: https://wiki.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/QCA_wireless_settings


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