Raspberry pi 4 used

Raspberry pi 4 used DEFAULT

8GB Raspberry Pi 4 on sale now at $75

The long-rumoured 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 is now available, priced at just $75.

Raspberry Pi 4 is almost a year old, and it’s been a busy year. We’ve sold nearly 3 million units, shipped a couple of minor board revisions, and reduced the price of the 2GB variant from $45 to $35. On the software side, we’ve done enormous amounts of work to reduce the idle and loaded power consumption of the device, passed OpenGL ES 3.1 conformance, started work on a Vulkan driver, and shipped PXE network boot mode and a prototype of USB mass storage boot mode – all this alongside the usual round of bug fixes, feature additions, and kernel version bumps.

While we launched with 1GB, 2GB and 4GB variants, even at that point we had our eye on the possibility of an 8GB Raspberry Pi 4. We were so enthusiastic about the idea that the non-existent product made its way into both the Beginner’s Guide and the compliance leaflet.

Oops.

The BCM2711 chip that we use on Raspberry Pi 4 can address up to 16GB of LPDDR4 SDRAM, so the real barrier to our offering a larger-memory variant was the lack of an 8GB LPDDR4 package. These didn’t exist (at least in a form that we could address) in 2019, but happily our partners at Micron stepped up earlier this year with a suitable part. And so, today, we’re delighted to announce the immediate availability of the 8GB Raspberry Pi 4, priced at just $75.

Multum in parvo

It’s worth reflecting for a moment on what a vast quantity of memory 8GB really is. To put it in retro-perspective (retrospective?), this is a BBC Micro‘s worth of memory for every bit in the memory of the BBC Micro; it’s a little over 13,000 times the 640KB that Bill Gates supposedly thought should be enough for anyone (sadly, it looks as though this quote is apocryphal).

If you’re a power user, intending to compile and link large pieces of software or run heavy server workloads, or you simply want to be able to have even more browser tabs open at once, this is definitely the Raspberry Pi for you.

What else has changed?

To supply the slightly higher peak currents required by the new memory package, James has shuffled the power supply components on the board, removing a switch-mode power supply from the right-hand side of the board next to the USB 2.0 sockets and adding a new switcher next to the USB-C power connnector. While this was a necessary change, it ended up costing us a three-month slip, as COVID-19 disrupted the supply of inductors from the Far East.

New switcher, new inductors, new schedule

Other than that, this is the same Raspberry Pi 4 you’ve come to know and love.

What about 64-bit?

Our default operating system image uses a 32-bit LPAE kernel and a 32-bit userland. This allows multiple processes to share all 8GB of memory, subject to the restriction that no single process can use more than 3GB. For most users this isn’t a serious restriction, particularly since every tab in Chromium gets its own process. Sticking with a 32-bit userland has the benefit that the same image will run on every board from a 2011-era alpha board to today’s shiny new 8GB product.

But power users, who want to be able to map all 8GB into the address space of a single process, need a 64-bit userland. There are plenty of options already out there, including Ubuntu and Gentoo.

Not to be left out, today we’ve released an early beta of our own 64-bit operating system image. This contains the same set of applications and the same desktop environment that you’ll find in our regular 32-bit image, but built against the Debian arm64 port.

Both our 32-bit and 64-bit operating system images have a new name: Raspberry Pi OS. As our community grows, we want to make sure it’s as easy as possible for new users to find our recommended operating system for Raspberry Pi. We think the new name will help more people feel confident in using our computers and our software. An update to the Raspberry Pi Desktop for all our operating system images is also out today, and we’ll have more on that in tomorrow’s blog post.

You can find a link to the new 64-bit image, and some important caveats, in this forum post.

Sours: https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/8gb-raspberry-pi-4-on-sale-now-at-75/

Raspberry Pi 4 on sale now from $35

We have a surprise for you today: Raspberry Pi 4 is now on sale, starting at $35. This is a comprehensive upgrade, touching almost every element of the platform. For the first time we provide a PC-like level of performance for most users, while retaining the interfacing capabilities and hackability of the classic Raspberry Pi line.

Get yours today from our Approved Resellers, or from the Raspberry Pi Store in Cambridge, open today 8am–8pm!

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B

Here are the highlights:

  • A 1.5GHz quad-core 64-bit ARM Cortex-A72 CPU (~3× performance)
  • 1GB, 2GB, or 4GB of LPDDR4 SDRAM
  • Full-throughput Gigabit Ethernet
  • Dual-band 802.11ac wireless networking
  • Bluetooth 5.0
  • Two USB 3.0 and two USB 2.0 ports
  • Dual monitor support, at resolutions up to 4K
  • VideoCore VI graphics, supporting OpenGL ES 3.x
  • 4Kp60 hardware decode of HEVC video
  • Complete compatibility with earlier Raspberry Pi products

And here it is in the flesh:

Still a handsome devil

Raspberry Pi 4 memory options

This is the first time we’re offering a choice of memory capacities. We’ve gone for the following price structure, retaining our signature $35 price for the entry-level model:

RAMRetail price
1GB$35
2GB$45
4GB$55

As always these prices exclude sales tax, import duty (where appropriate), and shipping. All three variants are launching today: we have initially built more of the 2GB variant than of the others, and will adjust the mix over time as we discover which one is most popular.

New Raspberry Pi 4, new features

At first glance, the Raspberry Pi 4 board looks very similar to our previous $35 products, all the way back to 2014’s Raspberry Pi 1B+. James worked hard to keep it this way, but for the first time he has made a small number of essential tweaks to the form factor to accommodate new features.

Power

We’ve moved from USB micro-B to USB-C for our power connector. This supports an extra 500mA of current, ensuring we have a full 1.2A for downstream USB devices, even under heavy CPU load.

An extra half amp, and USB OTG to boot

Video

To accommodate dual display output within the existing board footprint, we’ve replaced the type-A (full-size) HDMI connector with a pair of type-D (micro) HDMI connectors.

Seeing double

Ethernet and USB

Our Gigabit Ethernet magjack has moved to the top right of the board, from the bottom right, greatly simplifying PCB routing. The 4-pin Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) connector remains in the same location, so Raspberry Pi 4 remains compatible with the PoE HAT.

Through the looking glass

The Ethernet controller on the main SoC is connected to an external Broadcom PHY over a dedicated RGMII link, providing full throughput. USB is provided via an external VLI controller, connected over a single PCI Express Gen 2 lane, and providing a total of 4Gbps of bandwidth, shared between the four ports.

All three connectors on the right-hand side of the board overhang the edge by an additional millimetre, with the aim of simplifying case design. In all other respects, the connector and mounting hole layout remains the same, ensuring compatibility with existing HATs and other accessories.

New Raspbian software

To support Raspberry Pi 4, we are shipping a radically overhauled operating system, based on the forthcoming Debian 10 Buster release. This brings numerous behind-the-scenes technical improvements, along with an extensively modernised user interface, and updated applications including the Chromium 74 web browser. Simon will take an in-depth look at the changes in tomorrow’s blog post, but for now, here’s a screenshot of it in action.

Raspbian Buster desktop

Some advice for those who are keen to get going with Raspbian Buster right away: we strongly recommend you download a new image, rather than upgrading an existing card. This ensures that you’re starting with a clean, working Buster system. If you really, really want to try upgrading, make a backup first.

One notable step forward is that for Raspberry Pi 4, we are retiring the legacy graphics driver stack used on previous models. Instead, we’re using the Mesa “V3D” driver developed by Eric Anholt at Broadcom over the last five years. This offers many benefits, including OpenGL-accelerated web browsing and desktop composition, and the ability to run 3D applications in a window under X. It also eliminates roughly half of the lines of closed-source code in the platform.

New Raspberry Pi 4 accessories

Connector and form-factor changes bring with them a requirement for new accessories. We’re sensitive to the fact that we’re requiring people to buy these: Mike and Austin have worked hard to source good-quality, cost-effective products for our reseller and licensee partners, and to find low-cost alternatives where possible.

Raspberry Pi 4 Case

Gordon has been working with our design partners Kinneir Dufort and manufacturers T-Zero to develop an all-new two-part case, priced at $5.

New toy, new toy box

We’re very pleased with how this has turned out, but if you’d like to re-use one of our existing cases, you can simply cut away the plastic fins on the right-hand side and omit one of the side panels as shown below.

Quick work with a Dremel

Raspberry Pi 4 Power Supply

Good, low-cost USB-C power supplies (and USB-C cables) are surprisingly hard to find, as we discovered when sending out prototype units to alpha testers. So we worked with Ktec to develop a suitable 5V/3A power supply; this is priced at $8, and is available in UK (type G), European (type C), North American (type A) and Australian (type I) plug formats.

Behold the marvel that is BS 1363

If you’d like to re-use a Raspberry Pi 3 Official Power Supply, our resellers are offering a $1 adapter which converts from USB micro-B to USB-C. The thick wires and good load-step response of the old official supply make this a surprisingly competitive solution if you don’t need a full 3 amps.

Somewhat less marvellous, but still good

Raspberry Pi 4 micro HDMI Cables

Again, low-cost micro HDMI cables which reliably support the 6Gbps data rate needed for 4Kp60 video can be hard to find. We like the Amazon Basics cable, but we’ve also sourced a 1m cable, which will be available from our resellers for $5.

Official micro HDMI to HDMI cable

Updated Raspberry Pi Beginner’s Guide

At the end of last year, Raspberry Pi Press released the Official Raspberry Pi Beginner’s Guide. Gareth Halfacree has produced an updated version, covering the new features of Raspberry Pi 4 and our updated operating system.

Little computer people

Raspberry Pi 4 Desktop Kit

Bringing all of this together, we’re offering a complete Desktop Kit. This is priced at $120, and comprises:

  • A 4GB Raspberry Pi 4
  • An official case
  • An official PSU
  • An official mouse and keyboard
  • A pair of HDMI cables
  • A copy of the updated Beginner’s Guide
  • A pre-installed 16GB 32GB[oops – Ed.] microSD card

Raspberry Pi Desktop Kit

Raspberry Pi Store

This is the first product launch following the opening of our store in Cambridge, UK. For the first time, you can come and buy Raspberry Pi 4 directly from us, today. We’ll be open from 8am to 8pm, with units set up for you to play with and a couple of thousand on hand for you to buy. We even have some exclusive launch-day swag.

The Raspberry Pi Store sign

Form an orderly line

If you’re in the bottom right-hand corner of the UK, come on over and check it out!

New Raspberry Pi silicon

Since we launched the original Raspberry Pi in 2012, all our products have been based on 40nm silicon, with performance improvements delivered by adding progressively larger in-order cores (Cortex-A7, Cortex-A53) to the original ARM11-based BCM2835 design. With BCM2837B0 for Raspberry Pi 3B+ we reached the end of that particular road: we could no longer afford to toggle more transistors within our power budget.

Raspberry Pi 4 is built around BCM2711, a complete re-implementation of BCM283X on 28nm. The power savings delivered by the smaller process geometry have allowed us to replace Cortex-A53 with the much more powerful, out-of-order, Cortex-A72 core; this can execute more instructions per clock, yielding performance increases over Raspberry Pi 3B+ of between two and four times, depending on the benchmark.

We’ve taken advantage of the process change to overhaul many other elements of the design. We moved to a more modern memory technology, LPDDR4, tripling available bandwidth; we upgraded the entire display pipeline, including video decode, 3D graphics and display output to support 4Kp60 (or dual 4Kp30) throughput; and we addressed the non-multimedia I/O limitations of previous devices by adding on-board Gigabit Ethernet and PCI Express controllers.

Raspberry Pi 4 FAQs

We’ll keep updating this list over the next couple of days, but here are a few to get you started.

Wait, is it 2020 yet?

In the past, we’ve indicated 2020 as a likely introduction date for Raspberry Pi 4. We budgeted time for four silicon revisions of BCM2711 (A0, B0, C0, and C1); in comparison, we ship BCM2835C2 (the fifth revision of that design) on Raspberry Pi 1 and Zero.

Fortunately, 2711B0 has turned out to be production-ready, which has taken roughly 9–12 months out of the schedule.

Are you discontinuing earlier Raspberry Pi models?

No. We have a lot of industrial customers who will want to stick with the existing products for the time being. We’ll keep building these models for as long as there’s demand. Raspberry Pi 1B+, 2B, 3B, and 3B+ will continue to sell for $25, $35, $35, and $35 respectively.

What about a Model A version?

Historically, we’ve produced cut-down, lower-cost, versions of some of our $35 products, including Model 1A+ in 2014, and Model 3A+ at the end of last year. At present we haven’t identified a sensible set of changes to allow us to do a “Model 4A” product at significantly less than $35. We’ll keep looking though.

What about the Compute Module?

CM1, CM3, and CM3+ will continue to be available. We are evaluating options for producing a Compute Module product based on the Raspberry Pi 4 chipset.

Are you still using VideoCore?

Yes. VideoCore 3D is the only publicly documented 3D graphics core for ARM‑based SoCs, and we want to make Raspberry Pi more open over time, not less.

Credits

A project like Raspberry Pi 4 is the work of many hundreds of people, and we always try to acknowledge some of those people here.

This time round, particular credit is due to James Adams, who designed the board itself (you’ll find his signature under the USB 3.0 socket); to Mike Buffham, who ran the commercial operation, working with suppliers, licensees, and resellers to bring our most complicated product yet to market; and to all those at Raspberry Pi and Broadcom who have worked tirelessly to make this product a reality over the last few years.

A partial list of others who made major direct contributions to the BCM2711 chip program, CYW43455, VL805, and MxL7704 integrations, DRAM qualification, and Raspberry Pi 4 itself follows:


Andrew Scheller, Marion Scheuermann, Serge Schneider, Graham Scott, Marc Scott, Saran Kumar Seethapathi, Shawn Shadburn, Abdul Shaik, Mark Skala, Graham Smith, Michael Smith, Martin Sperl, Ajay Srivastava, Nick Steele, Ben Stephens, Dave Stevenson, Mike Stimson, Chee Siong Su, Austin Su, Prem Swaroop, Grant Taylor, Daniel Thompsett, Stuart Thomson, Eddie Thorn, Roger Thornton, Chris Tomlinson, Stephen Toomey, Mohamed Toubella, Frankie Tsai, Richard Tuck, Mike Unwin, Liz Upton, Manoj Vajhallya, Sandeep Venkatadas, Divya Vittal, John Wadsworth, Stefan Wahren, Irene Wang, Jeremy Wang, Rich Wells, Simon West, Joe Whaley, Craig Wightman, Oli Wilkin, Richard Wilkins, Sarah Williams, Jack Willis, Rob Wilson, Luke Wren, Romona Wu, Zheng Xu, Paul Yang, Pawel Zackiewicz, Ling Zhang, Jean Zhou, Ulf Ziemann, Rob Zwetsloot.

If you’re not on this list and think you should be, please let me know, and accept my apologies.

Sours: https://www.raspberrypi.com/news/raspberry-pi-4-on-sale-now-from-35/
  1. West marine fishing cart
  2. Ultra motorsport rims 17
  3. Clear badge holders horizontal
  4. Round glass wall planter
  5. Step 6 mr beast

The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games.

What’s more, the Raspberry Pi  has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work.

Raspberry Pi Foundation

The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a registered educational charity (registration number 1129409) based in the UK. Our Foundation’s goal is to advance the education of adults and children, particularly in the field of computers, computer science and related subjects. See our stories page for more information about the Foundation’s charitable work.

You can read more about the history of Raspberry Pi and the people who have helped to make it the success it is today on our about page.

Sours: https://www.raspberrypi.org/help/what-%20is-a-raspberry-pi/

Raspberry Pi

"RPi" redirects here. For other uses, see RPI. For the dessert, see Raspberry pie.

Series of inexpensive single-board computers used for educational purposes and embedded systems

‹ The templateInfobox information appliance is being considered for merging. ›

Raspberry Pi () is a series of small single-board computers (SBCs) developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation in association with Broadcom.[15] The Raspberry Pi project originally leaned towards the promotion of teaching basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.[16][17][18] The original model became more popular than anticipated,[19] selling outside its target market for uses such as robotics. It is widely used in many areas, such as for weather monitoring,[20] because of its low cost, modularity, and open design. It is typically used by computer and electronic hobbyists, due to its adoption of HDMI and USB devices.

After the release of the second board type, the Raspberry Pi Foundation set up a new entity, named Raspberry Pi Trading, and installed Eben Upton as CEO, with the responsibility of developing technology.[21] The Foundation was rededicated as an educational charity for promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools and developing countries.

Sold units of the Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is one of the best-selling British computers.[22] As of May 2021, more than forty million boards have been sold.[23] Most Pis are made in a Sony factory in Pencoed, Wales,[24] while others are made in China and Japan.[25][26]

Series and generations[edit]

The Raspberry Pi Zero, a US$7 model first introduced in 2015
The Raspberry Pi 3 B+, introduced in 2018
The Raspberry Pi 4 B, introduced in 2019
The Raspberry Pi Pico, introduced in 2021

There are three series of Raspberry Pi, and several generations of each have been released. Raspberry Pi SBCs feature a Broadcomsystem on a chip (SoC) with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU) and on-chip graphics processing unit (GPU), while Raspberry Pi Pico has a RP2040 system on chip with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU).

Raspberry Pi[edit]

  • The first generation (Raspberry Pi Model B) was released in February 2012, followed by the simpler and cheaper Model A.
  • In 2014, the Foundation released a board with an improved design, Raspberry Pi Model B+. These first generation boards feature ARM11 processors, are approximately credit-card sized and represent the standard mainline form-factor. Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year later.[clarification needed] A "Compute Module" was released in April 2014 for embedded applications.
  • The Raspberry Pi 2 was released in February 2015 and initially featured a 900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor with 1 GB RAM. Revision 1.2 featured a 900 MHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor (the same as that in the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, but underclocked to 900 MHz).[27]
  • Raspberry Pi 3 Model B was released in February 2016 with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad coreARM Cortex-A53 processor, on-board 802.11nWi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB boot capabilities.[28]
  • On Pi Day 2018, the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ was launched with a faster 1.4 GHz processor, a three-times faster gigabit Ethernet (throughput limited to ca. 300 Mbit/s by the internal USB 2.0 connection), and 2.4 / 5 GHz dual-band802.11ac Wi-Fi (100 Mbit/s).[29] Other features are Power over Ethernet (PoE) (with the add-on PoE HAT), USB boot and network boot (an SD card is no longer required)).
  • Raspberry Pi 4 Model B was released in June 2019[2] with a 1.5 GHz 64-bit quad core ARM Cortex-A72 processor, on-board 802.11ac Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 5, full gigabit Ethernet (throughput not limited), two USB 2.0 ports, two USB 3.0 ports, 2-8 GB of RAM, and dual-monitor support via a pair of micro HDMI (HDMI Type D) ports for up to 4K resolution. The Pi 4 is also powered via a USB-C port, enabling additional power to be provided to downstream peripherals, when used with an appropriate PSU. The initial Raspberry Pi 4 board has a design flaw where third-party e-marked USB cables, such as those used on Apple MacBooks, incorrectly identify it and refuse to provide power.[30][31]Tom's Hardware tested 14 different cables and found that 11 of them turned on and powered the Pi without issue.[32] The design flaw was fixed in revision 1.2 of the board, released in late 2019.[33]
  • Raspberry Pi 400 was released in November 2020. It features a custom board that is derived from the existing Raspberry Pi 4, specifically remodelled with a keyboard attached. The case was derived from that of the Raspberry Pi Keyboard.[34] A robust cooling solution similar to the one found in Commodore 64 allows the Raspberry Pi 400's Broadcom BCM2711C0 processor to be clocked at 1.8 GHz, which is slightly higher than the Raspberry Pi 4 it's based on.[35] The keyboard-computer features 4 GB of LPDDR4 RAM.

Raspberry Pi Zero[edit]

  • On 28 February 2017, the Raspberry Pi Zero W was launched, a version of the Zero with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities, for US$10.[36][37]
  • On 12 January 2018, the Raspberry Pi Zero WH was launched, a version of the Zero W with pre-soldered GPIO headers.[38]

Raspberry Pi Pico[edit]

Family Model SoC Memory Form Factor Ethernet Wireless GPIO Released Discontinued
Raspberry Pi B BCM2835 256 MB Standard[a]Yes No 26-pin 2012 Yes
A No 2013 No
B+ 512 MB Yes 40-pin 2014 No
A+ Compact[b]No 2014 No
Raspberry Pi 2 B BCM2836/7 1 GB Standard[a]Yes No 2015 No
Raspberry Pi Zero Zero BCM2835 512 MB Ultra-Compact[c]No No 2015 No
W/WH Yes 2017 No
Raspberry Pi 3 B BCM2837A0/B0 1 GB Standard[a]Yes Yes 2016 No
A+ BCM2837B0 512 MB Compact[b]No Yes (dual band) 2018 No
B+ 1 GB Standard[a]Yes (Gigabit Ethernet) 2018 No
Raspberry Pi 4 B BCM2711 1 GB Standard[a]Yes (Gigabit Ethernet) Yes (dual band) 2019[43]March 2020[1]
2 GB No
4 GB
8 GB 2020
400 4 GB Keyboard No
Raspberry Pi Pico N/A RP2040264 KB Pico (21 mm × 51 mm) No No 26-pin 2021 ?
  1. ^ abcde85.6 mm × 56.5 mm (3.37 in × 2.22 in)
  2. ^ ab65 mm × 56.5 mm (2.56 in × 2.22 in)
  3. ^65 mm × 30 mm (2.6 in × 1.2 in)

As of 4 May 2021, the Foundation is committed to manufacture most Pi models until at least January 2026. Even the 1 GB Pi4B can still be special ordered.[44]

Hardware[edit]

The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that feature variations in the type of the central processing unit, amount of memory capacity, networking support, and peripheral-device support.

Raspberrypi block function v01.svg

This block diagram[which?] describes models B, B+, A and A+. The Pi Zero models are similar, but lack the Ethernet and USB hub components. The Ethernet adapter is internally connected to an additional USB port. In Model A, A+, and the Pi Zero, the USB port is connected directly to the system on a chip (SoC). On the Pi 1 Model B+ and later models the USB/Ethernet chip contains a five-port USB hub, of which four ports are available, while the Pi 1 Model B only provides two. On the Pi Zero, the USB port is also connected directly to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB (OTG) port. Unlike all other Pi models, the 40 pin GPIO connector is omitted on the Pi Zero, with solderable through-holes only in the pin locations. The Pi Zero WH remedies this.

Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.4 GHz for the Pi 3 Model B+ or 1.5 GHz for the Pi 4; on-board memory ranges from 256 MB to 8 GBrandom-access memory (RAM), with only the Raspberry Pi 4 having more than 1 GB. Secure Digital (SD) cards in MicroSDHC form factor (SDHC on early models) are used to store the operating system and program memory, however some models also come with onboard eMMC storage[45] and the Raspberry Pi 4 can also make use of USB-attached SSD storage for its operating system.[46] The boards have one to five USB ports. For video output, HDMI and composite video are supported, with a standard 3.5 mm tip-ring-sleeve jack for audio output. Lower-level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins, which support common protocols like I²C. The B-models have an 8P8CEthernet port and the Pi 3, Pi 4 and Pi Zero W have on-board Wi-Fi802.11n and Bluetooth.[47]

Processor[edit]

The Raspberry Pi 2B uses a 32-bit 900 MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7processor.

The Broadcom BCM2835 SoC used in the first generation Raspberry Pi[48] includes a 700 MHzARM1176JZF-S processor, VideoCore IV graphics processing unit (GPU),[49] and RAM. It has a level 1 (L1) cache of 16 KB and a level 2 (L2) cache of 128 KB. The level 2 cache is used primarily by the GPU. The SoC is stacked underneath the RAM chip, so only its edge is visible. The ARM1176JZ(F)-S is the same CPU used in the original iPhone,[50] although at a higher clock rate, and mated with a much faster GPU.

The earlier V1.1 model of the Raspberry Pi 2 used a Broadcom BCM2836 SoC with a 900 MHz 32-bit, quad-coreARM Cortex-A7 processor, with 256 KB shared L2 cache.[51] The Raspberry Pi 2 V1.2 was upgraded to a Broadcom BCM2837 SoC with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor,[27] the same SoC which is used on the Raspberry Pi 3, but underclocked (by default) to the same 900 MHz CPU clock speed as the V1.1. The BCM2836 SoC is no longer in production as of late 2016.

The Raspberry Pi 3 Model B uses a Broadcom BCM2837 SoC with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, with 512 KB shared L2 cache. The Model A+ and B+ are 1.4 GHz[52][53][54]

The Raspberry Pi 4 uses a Broadcom BCM2711 SoC with a 1.5 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A72 processor, with 1 MB shared L2 cache.[55][56] Unlike previous models, which all used a custom interrupt controller poorly suited for virtualisation, the interrupt controller on this SoC is compatible with the ARM Generic Interrupt Controller (GIC) architecture 2.0, providing hardware support for interrupt distribution when using ARM virtualisation capabilities.[57][58]

The Raspberry Pi Zero and Zero W use the same Broadcom BCM2835 SoC as the first generation Raspberry Pi, although now running at 1 GHz CPU clock speed.[59]

The Raspberry Pi Pico uses the RP2040 running at 133 MHz.

Performance[edit]

While operating at 700 MHz by default, the first generation Raspberry Pi provided a real-world performance roughly equivalent to 0.041 GFLOPS.[60][61] On the CPU level the performance is similar to a 300 MHz Pentium II of 1997–99. The GPU provides 1 Gpixel/s or 1.5 Gtexel/s of graphics processing or 24 GFLOPS of general purpose computing performance. The graphical capabilities of the Raspberry Pi are roughly equivalent to the performance of the Xbox of 2001.

Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 included a quad-core Cortex-A7 CPU running at 900 MHz and 1 GB RAM. It was described as 4–6 times more powerful than its predecessor. The GPU was identical to the original.[51] In parallelised benchmarks, the Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 could be up to 14 times faster than a Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+.[62]

The Raspberry Pi 3, with a quad-core Cortex-A53 processor, is described as having ten times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 1.[63] Benchmarks showed the Raspberry Pi 3 to be approximately 80% faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 in parallelised tasks.[64]

The Raspberry Pi 4, with a quad-core Cortex-A72 processor, is described as having three times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 3.[2]

Overclocking[edit]

Most Raspberry Pi systems-on-chip could be overclocked to 800 MHz, and some to 1000 MHz. There are reports the Raspberry Pi 2 can be similarly overclocked, in extreme cases, even to 1500 MHz (discarding all safety features and over-voltage limitations). In Raspberry Pi OS the overclocking options on boot can be made by a software command running "sudo raspi-config" without voiding the warranty.[65] In those cases the Pi automatically shuts the overclocking down if the chip temperature reaches 85 °C (185 °F), but it is possible to override automatic over-voltage and overclocking settings (voiding the warranty); an appropriately sized heat sink is needed to protect the chip from serious overheating.

Newer versions of the firmware contain the option to choose between five overclock ("turbo") presets that, when used, attempt to maximise the performance of the SoC without impairing the lifetime of the board. This is done by monitoring the core temperature of the chip and the CPU load, and dynamically adjusting clock speeds and the core voltage. When the demand is low on the CPU or it is running too hot, the performance is throttled, but if the CPU has much to do and the chip's temperature is acceptable, performance is temporarily increased with clock speeds of up to 1 GHz, depending on the board version and on which of the turbo settings is used.

The overclocking modes are:

  • none; 700 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolting,
  • modest; 800 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolting,
  • medium; 900 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolting,
  • high; 950 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolting,
  • turbo; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 600 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolting,
  • Pi 2; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolting,
  • Pi 3; 1100 MHz ARM, 550 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolting. In system information the CPU speed appears as 1200 MHz. When idling, speed lowers to 600 MHz.[65][66]

In the highest (turbo) mode the SDRAM clock speed was originally 500 MHz, but this was later changed to 600 MHz because of occasional SD card corruption. Simultaneously, in high mode the core clock speed was lowered from 450 to 250 MHz, and in medium mode from 333 to 250 MHz.

The CPU of the first and second generation Raspberry Pi board did not require cooling with a heat sink or fan, even when overclocked, but the Raspberry Pi 3 may generate more heat when overclocked.[67]

RAM[edit]

The early designs of the Raspberry Pi Model A and B boards included only 256 MB of random access memory (RAM). Of this, the early beta Model B boards allocated 128 MB to the GPU by default, leaving only 128 MB for the CPU.[68] On the early 256 MB releases of models A and B, three different splits were possible. The default split was 192 MB for the CPU, which should be sufficient for standalone 1080p video decoding, or for simple 3D processing. 224 MB was for Linux processing only, with only a 1080p framebuffer, and was likely to fail for any video or 3D. 128 MB was for heavy 3D processing, possibly also with video decoding.[69] In comparison, the Nokia 701 uses 128 MB for the Broadcom VideoCore IV.[70]

The later Model B with 512 MB RAM, was released on 15 October 2012 and was initially released with new standard memory split files (arm256_start.elf, arm384_start.elf, arm496_start.elf) with 256 MB, 384 MB, and 496 MB CPU RAM, and with 256 MB, 128 MB, and 16 MB video RAM, respectively. But about one week later, the foundation released a new version of start.elf that could read a new entry in config.txt (gpu_mem=xx) and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM (from 16 to 256 MB in 8 MB steps) to the GPU, obsoleting the older method of splitting memory, and a single start.elf worked the same for 256 MB and 512 MB Raspberry Pis.[71]

The Raspberry Pi 2 has 1 GB of RAM.

The Raspberry Pi 3 has 1 GB of RAM in the B and B+ models, and 512 MB of RAM in the A+ model.[72][73][74] The Raspberry Pi Zero and Zero W have 512 MB of RAM.

The Raspberry Pi 4 is available with 2, 4 or 8 GB of RAM.[75] A 1 GB model was originally available at launch in June 2019 but was discontinued in March 2020,[1] and the 8 GB model was introduced in May 2020.[3]

Networking[edit]

The Model A, A+ and Pi Zero have no Ethernet circuitry and are commonly connected to a network using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. On the Model B and B+ the Ethernet port is provided by a built-in USB Ethernet adapter using the SMSC LAN9514 chip.[76] The Raspberry Pi 3 and Pi Zero W (wireless) are equipped with 2.4 GHz WiFi 802.11n(150 Mbit/s) and Bluetooth 4.1(24 Mbit/s) based on the Broadcom BCM43438 FullMAC chip with no official support for monitor mode (though it was implemented through unofficial firmware patching[77]) and the Pi 3 also has a 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet port. The Raspberry Pi 3B+ features dual-band IEEE 802.11b/g/n/ac WiFi, Bluetooth 4.2, and Gigabit Ethernet (limited to approximately 300 Mbit/s by the USB 2.0 bus between it and the SoC). The Raspberry Pi 4 has full gigabit Ethernet (throughput is not limited as it is not funnelled via the USB chip.)

Special-purpose features[edit]

The RPi Zero, RPi1A, RPi3A+[78] and RPi4 can be used as a USB device or "USB gadget", plugged into another computer via a USB port on another machine. It can be configured in multiple ways, for example to show up as a serial device or an ethernet device.[79] Although originally requiring software patches, this was added into the mainline Raspbian distribution in May 2016.[79]

Raspberry Pi models with a newer chipset can boot from USB mass storage, such as from a flash drive. Booting from USB mass storage is not available in the original Raspberry Pi models, the Raspberry Pi Zero, the Raspberry Pi Pico, the Raspberry Pi 2 A models and in Raspberry Pi 2 B models with a lower version than 1.2.[80]

Peripherals[edit]

The Model 2B boards incorporate four USB ports for connecting peripherals.

Although often pre-configured to operate as a headless computer, the Raspberry Pi may also optionally be operated with any generic USB computer keyboard and mouse.[81] It may also be used with USB storage, USB to MIDI converters, and virtually any other device/component with USB capabilities, depending on the installed device drivers in the underlying operating system (many of which are included by default).

Other peripherals can be attached through the various pins and connectors on the surface of the Raspberry Pi.[82]

Video[edit]

An early Raspberry Pi 1 Model A, with an HDMI port and a standard RCA composite video port for older displays

The video controller can generate standard modern TV resolutions, such as HD and Full HD, and higher or lower monitor resolutions as well as older NTSC or PAL standard CRT TV resolutions. As shipped (i.e., without custom overclocking) it can support the following resolutions: 640×350 EGA; 640×480 VGA; 800×600 SVGA; 1024×768 XGA; 1280×720 720pHDTV; 1280×768 WXGA variant; 1280×800 WXGA variant; 1280×1024 SXGA; 1366×768 WXGA variant; 1400×1050 SXGA+; 1600×1200 UXGA; 1680×1050 WXGA+; 1920×1080 1080pHDTV; 1920×1200 WUXGA.[83]

Higher resolutions, up to 2048×1152, may work[84][85] or even 3840×2160 at 15 Hz (too low a frame rate for convincing video).[86] Allowing the highest resolutions does not imply that the GPU can decode video formats at these resolutions; in fact, the Raspberry Pis are known to not work reliably for H.265 (at those high resolutions),[87] commonly used for very high resolutions (however, most common formats up to Full HD do work).

Although the Raspberry Pi 3 does not have H.265 decoding hardware, the CPU is more powerful than its predecessors, potentially fast enough to allow the decoding of H.265-encoded videos in software.[88] The GPU in the Raspberry Pi 3 runs at higher clock frequencies of 300 MHz or 400 MHz, compared to previous versions which ran at 250 MHz.[89]

The Raspberry Pis can also generate 576i and 480icomposite video signals, as used on old-style (CRT) TV screens and less-expensive monitors through standard connectors – either RCA or 3.5 mm phono connector depending on model. The television signal standards supported are PAL-B/G/H/I/D, PAL-M, PAL-N, NTSC and NTSC-J.[90]

Real-time clock[edit]

When booting, the time defaults to being set over the network using the Network Time Protocol (NTP). The source of time information can be another computer on the local network that does have a real-time clock, or to a NTP server on the internet. If no network connection is available, the time may be set manually or configured to assume that no time passed during the shutdown. In the latter case, the time is monotonic (files saved later in time always have later timestamps) but may be considerably earlier than the actual time. For systems that require a built-in real-time clock, a number of small, low-cost add-on boards with real-time clocks are available.[91][92]

The RP2040 microcontroller has a built-in real-time clock but this can not be set automatically without some form of user entry or network facility being added.

Connectors[edit]

Pi Zero[edit]

  • Location of connectors and main ICs

Model A[edit]

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 1 Model A

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 1 Model A+ revision 1.1

Model B[edit]

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 1 Model B revision 1.2

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+ revision 1.2 and Raspberry Pi 2

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 3

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 3+

  • Location of connectors and main ICs on Raspberry Pi 4

General purpose input-output (GPIO) connector[edit]

Raspberry Pi 1 Models A+ and B+, Pi 2 Model B, Pi 3 Models  A+, B and B+, Pi 4, and Pi Zero, Zero W, and Zero WH GPIO J8 have a 40-pin pinout.[93][94] Raspberry Pi 1 Models A and B have only the first 26 pins.[95][96][97]

In the Pi Zero and Zero W, the 40 GPIO pins are unpopulated, having the through-holes exposed for soldering instead. The Zero WH (Wireless + Header) has the header pins preinstalled.

GPIO# 2nd func. Pin# Pin# 2nd func. GPIO#
+3.3 V 1 2 +5 V
2 SDA1 (I2C) 3 4 +5 V
3 SCL1 (I2C) 5 6 GND
4 GCLK 7 8 TXD0 (UART) 14
GND 9 10 RXD0 (UART) 15
17 GEN0 11 12 GEN1 18
27 GEN2 13 14 GND
22 GEN3 15 16 GEN4 23
+3.3 V 17 18 GEN5 24
10 MOSI (SPI) 19 20 GND
9 MISO (SPI) 21 22 GEN6 25
11 SCLK (SPI) 23 24 CE0_N (SPI) 8
GND 25 26 CE1_N (SPI) 7
(Pi 1 Models A and B stop here)
0 ID_SD (I2C) 27 28 ID_SC (I2C) 1
5 N/A 29 30 GND
6 N/A 31 32 N/A 12
13 N/A 33 34 GND
19 N/A 35 36 N/A 16
26 N/A 37 38 Digital IN 20
GND 39 40 Digital OUT 21

Model B rev. 2 also has a pad (called P5 on the board and P6 on the schematics) of 8 pins offering access to an additional 4 GPIO connections.[98] These GPIO pins were freed when the four board version identification links present in revision 1.0 were removed.[99]

GPIO# 2nd func. Pin# Pin# 2nd func. GPIO#
+5 V 1 2 +3.3 V
28 GPIO_GEN7 3 4 GPIO_GEN8 29
30 GPIO_GEN9 5 6 GPIO_GEN10 31
GND 7 8 GND

Models A and B provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 16. Models A+ and B+ provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 47, and the power status LED using GPIO 35.

Specifications[edit]

Version Pico Model A (no Ethernet) Model B (with Ethernet) Compute Module[a]Zero Keyboard
Raspberry Pi Pico RPi 1 Model A RPi 1 Model A+ RPi 3 Model A+ RPi 1 Model B RPi 1 Model B+ RPi 2 Model B RPi 2 Model B v1.2 RPi 3 Model B RPi 3 Model B+ RPi 4 Model B Compute Module 1 Compute Module 3 Compute Module 3 Lite Compute Module 3+ Compute Module 3+ Lite Compute Module 4 Compute Module 4 Lite RPi Zero PCB v1.2 RPi Zero PCB v1.3 RPi Zero W RPi 400
Release date Jan 2021 Feb 2013[100]Nov 2014[101]Nov 2018 Apr–June 2012 July 2014[102]Feb 2015[51]Oct 2016[103]Feb 2016[63]14 Mar 2018[29]24 June 2019[104]
28 May 2020 (8GB)[3]
Apr 2014[105][106]Jan 2017[107]Jan 2019[108]Oct 2020 Nov 2015[12]May 2016 28 Feb 2017 2 Nov 2020
Target price (USD) $4 $25[100]$20[101]$25 $35[109]$25[110]$35 $35/55/75[104][1][3]$30 (in batches of 100)[111]$30 $25 $30/35/40 $25 $30/35/40/45/50/55/60/65/75/80/85/90 $25/30/35/45/50/70/75 $5[12]$10 $70
Instruction setArmv6-M ARMv6Z (32-bit) ARMv8 (64-bit) ARMv6Z (32-bit) ARMv7-A (32-bit) ARMv8-A (64/32-bit) ARMv6Z (32-bit) ARMv8-A (64/32-bit) ARMv6Z (32-bit) ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)
SoCRaspberry Pi RP2040 Broadcom BCM2835[48]Broadcom BCM2837B0[29]Broadcom BCM2835[48]Broadcom BCM2836 Broadcom BCM2837 Broadcom BCM2837B0[29]Broadcom BCM2711[104]Broadcom BCM2835[111]Broadcom BCM2837 Broadcom BCM2837B0 Broadcom BCM2711 Broadcom BCM2835 Broadcom BCM2711C0
FPUN/A VFPv2; NEON not supported VFPv4 + NEON VFPv2; NEON not supported VFPv4 + NEON VFPv2; NEON not supported VFPv4 + NEON VFPv2; NEON not supported
CPUDual-core Arm Cortex-M0+ 1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz 4× Cortex-A53 1.4 GHz 1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz 4× Cortex-A7 900 MHz 4× Cortex-A53 900 MHz 4× Cortex-A53 1.2 GHz 4× Cortex-A53 1.4 GHz 4× Cortex-A72 1.5 GHz[43]1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz 4× Cortex-A53 1.2 GHz 4× Cortex-A72 1.5 GHz 1× ARM1176JZF-S 1 GHz 4× Cortex-A72 1.8 GHz
GPUN/A Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz[b]BroadcomVideoCore IV @ 400 MHz/300 MHz BroadcomVideoCore VI @ 500 MHz[112]Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz[b]BroadcomVideoCore VI @ 500 MHz[112]Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz[b]BroadcomVideoCore VI @ 500 MHz
Memory (SDRAM)[113]264 KB 256 MB[c]256 or 512 MB[c]
Changed to 512 MB on 10 August 2016[114]
512 MB[c]256 or 512 MB[c]
Changed to 512 MB on 15 October 2012[115]
512 MB[c]1 GB[c]1, 2, 4 or 8 GB[c]512 MB[c]1 GB[c]1, 2, 4 or 8 GB[c]512 MB[c]4 GB
USB 2.0 ports[81]N/A 1[d]1[e]2[f][116]4[g][76][102]2[104]1[d][a]1[d][a]1[e][a]1 1 Micro-USB[d]1
USB 3.0 ports N/A 0 2[104]0 2
USB OTG ports N/A 0 1 (Power USB-C)[117]0 1 Micro-USB[d]0
PCIe interface N/A 0 PCIe Gen 2 x1 0 0
Video input N/A 15-pin MIPIcamera interface (CSI) connector, used with the Raspberry Pi camera or Raspberry Pi NoIR camera[118]2× MIPI camera interface (CSI)[a][111][119][120]2-lane MIPI CSI camera interface, 4-lane MIPI CSI camera interface None MIPI camera interface (CSI)[121]None
HDMIN/A 1× HDMI (rev 1.3) 2× HDMI (rev 2.0) via Micro-HDMI[43]1× HDMI[a]2x HDMI 1× Mini-HDMI 2× HDMI (rev 2.0) via Micro-HDMI
Composite videoN/A via RCA jackvia 3.5 mm CTIA style TRRS jackvia RCA jackvia 3.5 mm CTIA style TRRS jackYes[a][119]via marked points on PCB for optional header pins[123]
MIPI display interface (DSI)[h]N/A Yes Yes[a][111][120][124][125]Yes No
Audio inputs N/A As of revision 2 boards via I²S[126]
Audio outputs N/A Analog via 3.5 mm phone jack; digital via HDMI and, as of revision 2 boards, I²SAnalog, HDMI, I²S[a]Mini-HDMI, stereo audio through PWM on GPIO Micro-HDMI
On-board storage[81]2MB Flash memory SD, MMC, SDIO card slot (3.3 V with card power only) MicroSDHC slot[102]SD, MMC, SDIO card slot MicroSDHC slot MicroSDHC slot, USB Boot Mode[127]4 GB eMMCflash memory chip[111]MicroSDHC slot 8/16/32 GB eMMCflash memory chip[111]MicroSDHC slot 8/16/32 GB eMMCflash memory chip[111]MicroSDHC slot MicroSDHC slot MicroSDHC slot
Ethernet (8P8C)[81]N/A None[128]None 10/100 Mbit/s
USB adapter on the USB hub[116]
10/100 Mbit/s 10/100/1000 Mbit/s (real max speed 300 Mbit/s)[129]10/100/1000 Mbit/s[104]None 10/100/1000 Mbit/s None None 10/100/1000 Mbit/s
WiFi IEEE 802.11 wireless N/A b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz None b/g/n single band 2.4 GHz b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz (optional) b/g/n single band 2.4 GHz b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz
Bluetooth N/A 4.2 BLE 4.1 BLE 4.2 LS BLE 5.0[104]5.0, BLE (optional) 4.1 BLE 5.0
Low-level peripherals UART 8× GPIO[130] plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio[131] +3.3 V, +5 V, ground[132][133]17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus 8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 V, +5 V, ground. 17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus 17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, HAT, and an additional 4× UART, 4× SPI, and 4× I2C connectors.[134]46× GPIO, some of which can be used for specific functions including I²C, SPI, UART, PCM, PWM[a]28 × GPIO supporting either 1.8v or 3.3v signalling and peripheral options 17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus[12]
Power ratings ? 300 mA (1.5 W)[136]200 mA (1 W)[137]700 mA (3.5 W) 200 mA (1 W) average when idle, 350 mA (1.75 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)[138]220 mA (1.1 W) average when idle, 820 mA (4.1 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)[138]300 mA (1.5 W) average when idle, 1.34 A (6.7 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and WiFi connected)[138]459 mA (2.295 W) average when idle, 1.13 A (5.661 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and WiFi connected)[139]600 mA (3 W) average when idle, 1.25 A (6.25 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and Ethernet connected),[138] 3 A (15 W) power supply recommended[2]200 mA (1 W) 700 mA (3.5 W) 100 mA (0.5 W) average when idle, 350 mA (1.75 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)[138]
Power source MicroUSB or GPIO Header 1.8 V to 5V 5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header 5 V via MicroUSB, GPIO header, or PoE (with the PoE HAT) 5 V via MicroUSB, GPIO header, or PoE (with the PoE HAT) 5 V via USB-C or GPIO header 2.5 - 5 V, 3.3 V, 2.5 - 3.3 V, and 1.8 V[a]5 V 5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header
Size 51 x 21mm 85.6 mm × 56.5 mm
(3.37 in × 2.22 in)[i]
65 mm × 56.5 mm × 10 mm
(2.56 in × 2.22 in × 0.39 in)[j]
65 mm × 56.5 mm
(2.56 in × 2.22 in)
85.60 mm × 56.5 mm
(3.370 in × 2.224 in)[i]
85.60 mm × 56.5 mm × 17 mm
(3.370 in × 2.224 in × 0.669 in)[140]
67.6 mm × 30 mm
(2.66 in × 1.18 in)
67.6 mm × 31 mm
(2.66 in × 1.22 in)
55 mm × 40 mm 65 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm
(2.56 in × 1.18 in × 0.20 in)
286 mm × 113 mm × 23 mm
Weight ? 31 g
(1.1 oz)
23 g
(0.81 oz)
45 g
(1.6 oz)
46 g
(1.6 oz)[141]
7 g
(0.25 oz)
9 g
(0.32 oz)[143]
Console Adding a USB network interface via tethering[128] or a serial cable with optional GPIO power connector[144]
Generation 1 1+ 3+ 1 1+ 2 2 ver 1.2 3 3+ 4 1 3 3 Lite 3+ 3+ Lite 4 4 Lite PCB ver 1.2 PCB ver 1.3 W (wireless) 4
Obsolescence
Statement
N/A in production until at least January 2026 in production until at least January 2026 N/A in production until at least January 2026 N/A in production until at least January 2022 in production until at least January 2026[145]in production until at least January 2026 in production until at least January 2026 N/A N/A N/A in production until at least January 2026 in production until at least January 2028 N/A, or see PCB ver 1.3 in production until at least January 2026[146]in production until at least January 2026 in production until at least January 2026
Type Pico Model A (no Ethernet) Model B (with Ethernet) Compute Module[a]Zero
  1. ^ abcdefghijkl200-pin DDR2 SO-DIMM interface till CM3+,
  2. ^ abcBCM2837: 3D part of GPU at 300 MHz, video part of GPU at 400 MHz,[132][147]OpenGL ES 2.0 (BCM2835, BCM2836: 24 GFLOPS / BCM2837: 28.8 GFLOPS). MPEG-2 and VC-1 (with licence),[148]1080p30 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC high-profile decoder and encoder[48] (BCM2837: 1080p60)
  3. ^ abcdefghijkShared with GPU.
  4. ^ abcdeDirect from the BCM2835 chip.
  5. ^ abDirect from the BCM2837B0 chip.
  6. ^via on-board 3-port USB hub; one USB port internally connected to the Ethernet port.
  7. ^via on-board 5-port USB hub; one USB port internally connected to the Ethernet port.
  8. ^for raw LCD panels
  9. ^ abExcluding protruding connectors.
  10. ^Same as HAT board.

Simplified Model B Changelog[edit]

Model Gen Variant Year SoC Clockspeed Cores /
Threads
64-bit GFLOPS RAM
(GB)
Video
Output
4K
Ready
USB Alt
Boot
Ethernet
(Max Gbit/s)
Wi-Fi BT Power Source Price
(USD)

1b1

RPi 1 Model B
1B (256 MB)

1b1

2012
BCM2835 0.7 GHz 1/1 0.213

00256

0.25
HDMI1.3
Composite
2 × USB2.00.1 Micro-USB $35

1b2

RPi 1 Model B
1B (512 MB)

1b2

2012
BCM2835 0.7 GHz 1/1 0.213

00512

0.5
HDMI1.3
Composite
2 × USB2.00.1 Micro-USB $35

1b3

RPi 1 Model B+
1B+

1b3

2014
BCM2835 0.7 GHz 1/1 0.213

00512

0.5
HDMI1.3
Composite
4 × USB2.00.1 Micro-USB $25

2b1

RPi 2 Model B
2B

2b1

2015
BCM2836 0.9 GHz 4/4 1.47

01024

1
HDMI1.34 × USB2.00.1 Micro-USB $35

2b2

RPi 2 Model B v1.2
2B v1.2

2b2

2016
BCM2837 0.9 GHz 4/4 4.43

01024

1
HDMI1.34 × USB2.00.1 Micro-USB $35

3b1

RPi 3 Model B
3B

3b1

2016
BCM2837 1.2 GHz 4/4 3.62

01024

1
HDMI1.34 × USB2.0USB
Network
(through OTP bit setting)
0.1 b/g/n

single-band
(2.4 GHz only)

4.1 BLE Micro-USB $35

3b2

RPi 3 Model B+
3B+

3b2

2018
BCM2837B0 1.4 GHz 4/4 5.3

01024

1
HDMI1.34 × USB2.0USB
Network
0.35 b/g/n/ac

dual-band

4.2 LS BLE Micro-USB $35

4b1

RPi 4 Model B
4B (1 GB)

4b1

2019
BCM2711 1.5 GHz 4/4 9.92

01024

1
2 × Micro-HDMI2.02 × USB2.0
2 × USB3.0
USB
Network
1.0 b/g/n/ac

dual-band

5.0 USB-C $35

4b2

RPi 4 Model B
4B (2 GB)

4b2

2019
BCM2711 1.5 GHz 4/4

02048

2
2 × Micro-HDMI2.02 × USB2.0
2 × USB3.0
USB
Network
1.0 b/g/n/ac

dual-band

5.0 USB-C $35

from $45

4b3

RPi 4 Model B
4B (4 GB)

4b3

2019
BCM2711 1.5 GHz 4/4 13.5

04096

4
2 × Micro-HDMI2.02 × USB2.0
2 × USB3.0
USB
Network
1.0 b/g/n/ac

dual-band

5.0 USB-C $55

4b4

RPi 4 Model B
4B (8 GB)

4b4

2020
BCM2711 1.5 GHz 4/4

08192

8
2 × Micro-HDMI2.02 × USB2.0
2 × USB3.0
USB
Network
1.0 b/g/n/ac

dual-band

5.0 USB-C $75

Software[edit]

Operating systems[edit]

Various operating systems for the Raspberry Pi can be installed on a MicroSD, MiniSD or SD card, depending on the board and available adapters; seen here is the MicroSD slot located on the bottom of a Raspberry Pi 2 board.

The Raspberry Pi Foundation provides Raspberry Pi OS (formerly called Raspbian), a Debian-based (32-bit) Linux distribution for download, as well as third-party Ubuntu, Windows 10 IoT Core, RISC OS, LibreELEC (specialised media centre distribution)[149] and specialised distributions for the Kodi media centre and classroom management.[150] It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming languages, with support for many other languages.[151] The default firmware is closed source, while unofficial open source is available.[152][153][154] Many other operating systems can also run on the Raspberry Pi. The formally verified microkernel seL4 is also supported.[155] There are several ways of installing multiple operating systems on one SD card.[156]

Other operating systems (not Linux- nor BSD-based)
  • Broadcom VCOS – Proprietary operating system which includes an abstraction layer designed to integrate with existing kernels, such as ThreadX (which is used on the VideoCore4 processor), providing drivers and middleware for application development. In the case of the Raspberry Pi, this includes an application to start the ARM processor(s) and provide the publicly documented API over a mailbox interface, serving as its firmware. An incomplete source of a Linux port of VCOS is available as part of the reference graphics driver published by Broadcom.[157]
  • Haiku – an open source BeOS clone that has been compiled for the Raspberry Pi and several other ARM boards.[158] Work on Pi 1 began in 2011, but only the Pi 2 will be supported.[159]
  • HelenOS – a portable microkernel-based multiserver operating system; has basic Raspberry Pi support since version 0.6.0[160]
  • Plan 9 from Bell Labs[161][162] and Inferno[163] (in beta)
  • RISC OS Pi (a special cut down version RISC OS Pico, for 16 MB cards and larger for all models of Pi 1 & 2, has also been made available.)
  • Ultibo Core - OS-less unikerel Run Time Library based on Free Pascal. Lazarus IDE (Windows with 3rd party ports to Linux and MacOS). Most Pi models supported.[164]
  • Windows 10 IoT Core – a zero-price edition of Windows 10 offered by Microsoft that runs natively on the Raspberry Pi 2.[165]
Other operating systems (Linux-based)
  • Alpine Linux – a Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox, "designed for power users who appreciate security, simplicity and resource efficiency".[166]
  • Android Things – an embedded version of the Android operating system designed for IoT device development.
  • Arch Linux ARM, a port of Arch Linux for ARM processors, and Arch-based Manjaro Linux ARM
  • Ark OS – designed for website and email self-hosting.
  • Batocera - a buildroot based Linux OS that uses Emulation Station as its frontend for RetroArch and other emulators plus auxiliary scripts. Instead of a classic Linux distribution with package managers handling individual software updates, Batocera is crafted to behave more like a video game console firmware with all tools and emulators included and updated as a single package during software updates.[167]
  • CentOS for Raspberry Pi 2 and later
  • Devuan
  • emteria.OS – an embedded, managed version of the Android operating system for professional fleet management
  • Fedora (supports Pi 2 and later since Fedora 25, Pi 1 is supported by some unofficial derivatives) and RedSleeve (a RHEL port) for Raspberry Pi 1
  • Gentoo Linux[168]
  • Kali Linux – a Debian-derived distro designed for digital forensics and penetration testing.
  • openSUSE,[169]SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2[170] and Server 12 SP3 (Commercial support)[170]
  • OpenWrt – a highly extensible Linux distribution for embedded devices (typically wireless routers). It supports Pi 1, 2, 3, 4 and Zero W.[171]
  • postmarketOS - distribution based on Alpine Linux, primarily developed for smartphones.
  • RetroPie - an offshoot of Raspbian OS that uses Emulation Station as its frontend for RetroArch and other emulators like Mupen64 for retro gaming.[172] Hardware like Freeplay tech can help replace Game boy internals with RetroPie emulation[173].
  • Sailfish OS with Raspberry Pi 2 (due to use ARM Cortex-A7 CPU; Raspberry Pi 1 uses different ARMv6 architecture and Sailfish requires ARMv7.)[174]
  • Slackware ARM – version 13.37 and later runs on the Raspberry Pi without modification.[175][176][177][178] The 128–496 MB of available memory on the Raspberry Pi is at least twice the minimum requirement of 64 MB needed to run Slackware Linux on an ARM or i386 system.[179] (Whereas the majority of Linux systems boot into a graphical user interface, Slackware's default user environment is the textual shell / command line interface.[180]) The Fluxbox window manager running under the X Window System requires an additional 48 MB of RAM.[181]
  • SolydXK – a light Debian-derived distro with Xfce.
  • Tiny Core Linux – a minimal Linux operating system focused on providing a base system using BusyBox and FLTK. Designed to run primarily in RAM.
  • Ubuntu-based: Lubuntu[182] and Xubuntu[182]
  • Void Linux – a rolling release Linux distribution which was designed and implemented from scratch, provides images based on musl or glibc.
Other operating systems (BSD-based)

Driver APIs[edit]

See also: VideoCore § Linux support

Raspberry Pi can use a VideoCore IV GPU via a binary blob, which is loaded into the GPU at boot time from the SD-card, and additional software, that initially was closed source.[188] This part of the driver code was later released.[189] However, much of the actual driver work is done using the closed source GPU code. Application software makes calls to closed source run-time libraries (OpenMax, OpenGL ES or OpenVG), which in turn call an open source driver inside the Linux kernel, which then calls the closed source VideoCore IV GPU driver code. The API of the kernel driver is specific for these closed libraries. Video applications use OpenMAX, 3D applications use OpenGL ES and 2D applications use OpenVG, which both in turn use EGL. OpenMAX and EGL use the open source kernel driver in turn.[190]

Vulkan driver[edit]

The Raspberry Pi Foundation first announced it was working on a Vulkan driver in February 2020.[191] A working Vulkan driver running Quake 3 at 100 frames per second on a 3B+ was revealed by a graphics engineer who had been working on it as a hobby project on 20 June.[192] On November 24, 2020, Raspberry Pi Foundation announced that their driver for the Raspberry Pi 4 is Vulkan 1.0 conformant.[193]

Firmware[edit]

The official firmware is a freely redistributable[194]binary blob, that is proprietary software.[158] A minimal proof-of-concept open source firmware is also available, mainly aimed at initialising and starting the ARM cores as well as performing minimal startup that is required on the ARM side. It is also capable of booting a very minimal Linux kernel, with patches to remove the dependency on the mailbox interface being responsive. It is known to work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3, as well as some variants of Raspberry Pi Zero.[195]

Third-party application software[edit]

Software development tools[edit]

  • Arduino IDE – for programming an Arduino.
  • Algoid – for teaching programming to children and beginners.
  • BlueJ – for teaching Java to beginners.
  • Greenfoot – Greenfoot teaches object orientation with Java. Create 'actors' which live in 'worlds' to build games, simulations, and other graphical programs.
  • Julia – an interactive and cross-platform programming language/environment, that runs on the Pi 1 and later.[207] IDEs for Julia, such as Visual Studo Code, are available. See also Pi-specific Github repository JuliaBerry.
  • Lazarus[208] – a Free Pascal RAD IDE
  • LiveCode – an educational RAD IDE descended from HyperCard using English-like language to write event-handlers for WYSIWYG widgets runnable on desktop, mobile and Raspberry Pi platforms.
  • Ninja-IDE – a cross-platform integrated development environment (IDE) for Python.
  • Processing – an IDE built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context.
  • Scratch – a cross-platform teaching IDE using visual blocks that stack like Lego, originally developed by MIT's Life Long Kindergarten group. The Pi version is very heavily optimised[209] for the limited computer resources available and is implemented in the Squeak Smalltalk system. The latest version compatible with The 2 B is 1.6.
  • Squeak Smalltalk – a full-scale open Smalltalk.
  • TensorFlow – an artificial intelligence framework developed by Google. The Raspberry Pi Foundation worked with Google to simplify the installation process through pre-built binaries.[210]
  • Thonny – a Python IDE for beginners.
  • V-Play Game Engine – a cross-platform development framework that supports mobile game and app development with the V-Play Game Engine, V-Play apps, and V-Play plugins.
  • Xojo – a cross-platform RAD tool that can create desktop, web and console apps for Pi 2 and Pi 3.
  • C-STEM Studio – a platform for hands-on integrated learning of computing, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (C-STEM) with robotics.
  • Erlang – a functional language for building concurrent systems with light-weight processes and message passing.
  • LabVIEW Community Edition – a system-design platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments.

Accessories[edit]

Raspberry Pi "5 megapixel camera"
Raspberry Pi High Quality Camera Module
Raspberry PI 4 Model B with a "TV Hat" card (for DVB-T/T2 television reception) attached
  • Gertboard – A Raspberry Pi Foundation sanctioned device, designed for educational purposes, that expands the Raspberry Pi's GPIO pins to allow interface with and control of LEDs, switches, analogue signals, sensors and other devices. It also includes an optional Arduino compatible controller to interface with the Pi.[211]
  • Camera – On 14 May 2013, the foundation and the distributors RS Components & Premier Farnell/Element 14 launched the Raspberry Pi camera board alongside a firmware update to accommodate it.[212] The camera board is shipped with a flexible flat cable that plugs into the CSI connector which is located between the Ethernet and HDMI ports. In Raspbian, the user must enable the use of the camera board by running Raspi-config and selecting the camera option. The camera module costs €20 in Europe (9 September 2013).[213] It uses the OmniVision OV5647 image sensor and can produce 1080p, 720p and 640x480p video. The dimensions are 25 mm × 20 mm × 9 mm.[213] In May 2016, v2 of the camera came out, and is an 8 megapixel camera using a Sony IMX219.[214]
  • Infrared Camera – In October 2013, the foundation announced that they would begin producing a camera module without an infrared filter, called the Pi NoIR.[215]
  • Official Display – On 8 September 2015, The foundation and the distributors RS Components & Premier Farnell/Element 14 launched the Raspberry Pi Touch Display[216]
  • HAT (Hardware Attached on Top) expansion boards – Together with the Model B+, inspired by the Arduino shield boards, the interface for HAT boards was devised by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Each HAT board carries a small EEPROM (typically a CAT24C32WI-GT3)[217] containing the relevant details of the board,[218] so that the Raspberry Pi's OS is informed of the HAT, and the technical details of it, relevant to the OS using the HAT.[219] Mechanical details of a HAT board, which uses the four mounting holes in their rectangular formation, are available online.[220][221]
  • High Quality Camera – In May 2020, the 12.3 megapixel Sony IMXZ477 sensor camera module was released with support for C- and CS-mount lenses.[222] The unit initially retailed for US$50 with interchangeable lenses starting at US$25.
  • High Quality Camera – In Nov 2020, the 13 megapixel ON Semiconductor AR1335 sensor camera module was released with support for S-mount lenses.[223] The unit initially retailed for US$99.

Vulnerability to flashes of light[edit]

In February 2015, a switched-mode power supply chip, designated U16, of the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B version 1.1 (the initially released version) was found to be vulnerable to flashes of light,[224] particularly the light from xenon camera flashes and green[225] and red laser pointers. However, other bright lights, particularly ones that are on continuously, were found to have no effect. The symptom was the Raspberry Pi 2 spontaneously rebooting or turning off when these lights were flashed at the chip. Initially, some users and commenters suspected that the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from the xenon flash tube was causing the problem by interfering with the computer's digital circuitry, but this was ruled out by tests where the light was either blocked by a card or aimed at the other side of the Raspberry Pi 2, both of which did not cause a problem. The problem was narrowed down to the U16 chip by covering first the system on a chip (main processor) and then U16 with Blu-Tack (an opaque poster mounting compound). Light being the sole culprit, instead of EMP, was further confirmed by the laser pointer tests,[225] where it was also found that less opaque covering was needed to shield against the laser pointers than to shield against the xenon flashes.[224] The U16 chip seems to be bare silicon without a plastic cover (i.e. a chip-scale package or wafer-level package), which would, if present, block the light. Unofficial workarounds include covering U16 with opaque material (such as electrical tape,[224][225] lacquer, poster mounting compound, or even balled-up bread[224]), putting the Raspberry Pi 2 in a case,[225] and avoiding taking photos of the top side of the board with a xenon flash. This issue was not discovered before the release of the Raspberry Pi 2 because it is not standard or common practice to test susceptibility to optical interference,[224] while commercial electronic devices are routinely subjected to tests of susceptibility to radio interference.

Reception and use[edit]

NASA's Open Source Roverpowered by a Raspberry Pi 3

Technology writer Glyn Moody described the project in May 2011 as a "potential BBC Micro 2.0", not by replacing PC compatible machines but by supplementing them.[226] In March 2012 Stephen Pritchard echoed the BBC Micro successor sentiment in ITPRO.[227] Alex Hope, co-author of the Next Gen report, is hopeful that the computer will engage children with the excitement of programming.[228] Co-author Ian Livingstone suggested that the BBC could be involved in building support for the device, possibly branding it as the BBC Nano.[229]The Centre for Computing History strongly supports the Raspberry Pi project, feeling that it could "usher in a new era".[230] Before release, the board was showcased by ARM's CEO Warren East at an event in Cambridge outlining Google's ideas to improve UK science and technology education.[231]

Harry Fairhead, however, suggests that more emphasis should be put on improving the educational software available on existing hardware, using tools such as Google App Inventor to return programming to schools, rather than adding new hardware choices.[232] Simon Rockman, writing in a ZDNet blog, was of the opinion that teens will have "better things to do", despite what happened in the 1980s.[233]

In October 2012, the Raspberry Pi won T3's Innovation of the Year award,[234] and futurist Mark Pesce cited a (borrowed) Raspberry Pi as the inspiration for his ambient device project MooresCloud.[235] In October 2012, the British Computer Society reacted to the announcement of enhanced specifications by stating, "it's definitely something we'll want to sink our teeth into."[236]

In June 2017, Raspberry Pi won the Royal Academy of EngineeringMacRobert Award.[237] The citation for the award to the Raspberry Pi said it was "for its inexpensive credit card-sized microcomputers, which are redefining how people engage with computing, inspiring students to learn coding and computer science and providing innovative control solutions for industry."[238]

Clusters of hundreds of Raspberry Pis have been used for testing programs destined for supercomputers[239]

[edit]

The Raspberry Pi community was described by Jamie Ayre of FLOSS software company AdaCore as one of the most exciting parts of the project. Community blogger Russell Davis said that the community strength allows the Foundation to concentrate on documentation and teaching. The community developed a fanzine around the platform called The MagPi[241] which in 2015, was handed over to the Raspberry Pi Foundation by its volunteers to be continued in-house.[242] A series of community Raspberry Jam events have been held across the UK and around the world.[243]

Education[edit]

As of January 2012[update], enquiries about the board in the United Kingdom have been received from schools in both the state and private sectors, with around five times as much interest from the latter. It is hoped that businesses will sponsor purchases for less advantaged schools.[244] The CEO of Premier Farnell said that the government of a country in the Middle East has expressed interest in providing a board to every schoolgirl, to enhance her employment prospects.[245][246]

In 2014, the Raspberry Pi Foundation hired a number of its community members including ex-teachers and software developers to launch a set of free learning resources for its website.[247] The Foundation also started a teacher training course called Picademy with the aim of helping teachers prepare for teaching the new computing curriculum using the Raspberry Pi in the classroom.[248]

In 2018, NASA launched the JPL Open Source Rover Project, which is a scaled down version of Curiosity rover and uses a Raspberry Pi as the control module, to encourage students and hobbyists to get involved in mechanical, software, electronics, and robotics engineering.[249]

Home automation[edit]

There are a number of developers and applications that are using the Raspberry Pi for home automation. These programmers are making an effort to modify the Raspberry Pi into a cost-affordable solution in energy monitoring and power consumption. Because of the relatively low cost of the Raspberry Pi, this has become a popular and economical alternative to the more expensive commercial solutions.[250]

Industrial automation[

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Used 4 raspberry pi

Raspberry SC15184 Pi 4 Model B 2019 Quad Core 64 Bit WiFi Bluetooth (2GB)

Size:2GB

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B is the latest product in the popular Raspberry Pi range of computers. It offers ground-breaking increases in processor speed, multimedia performance, memory, and connectivity compared to the prior-generation Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+, while retaining backwards compatibility and similar power consumption. For the end user, Raspberry Pi 4 Model B provides desktop performance comparable to entry-level x86 PC systems. This product’s key features include a high-performance 64-bit quad-core processor, dual-display support at resolutions up to 4K via a pair of micro-HDMI ports, hardware video decode at up to 4Kp60, 2GB of RAM, dual-band 2. 4/5. 0 GHz wireless LAN, Bluetooth 5. 0, Gigabit Ethernet, USB 3. 0, and PoE capability (via a separate PoE HAT add-on). The dual-band wireless LAN and Bluetooth have modular compliance certification, allowing the board to be designed into end products with significantly reduced compliance testing, improving both cost and time to market. Includes Broadcom BCM2711, quad-core Cortex-A72 (ARM v8) 64-bit SoC @ 1. 5GHz 2GB LPDDR4-2400 SDRAM 2. 4 GHz and 5. 0 GHz IEEE 802. 11b/g/n/ac wireless LAN, Bluetooth 5. 0, BLE True gigabit ethernet 2 × USB 3. 0 ports, 2 x USB 2. 0 Ports Fully backwards compatible 40-pin GPIO header 2 × micro HDMI ports supproting up to 4Kp60 video resolution 2-lane MIPI DSI/CSI ports for camera and display 4-pole stereo audio and composite video port Micro SD card slot for loading operating system and data storage Requires 5. 1V, 3A power via USB Type C or GPIO-Not included PoE (Power over Ethernet) enabled (requires PoE HAT-not included)

Sours: https://www.amazon.com/Raspberry-Model-2019-Quad-Bluetooth/dp/B07TD42S27
$100 PC VS Raspberry Pi 4 8GB - Can The Pi4 Replace a Desktop PC?

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