Tier 3 Certification Fuel Impacts Test Program
Test Program Overview
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the responsibility to determine the test procedures to be used when performing emission and fuel economy testing for vehicles and engines. Part of this responsibility involves defining the properties of the test fuels that are required for the testing performed by manufacturers and laboratories, and also providing the proper analytical equations to calculate both emission and fuel economy for the test fuels. When test fuel properties change, as they have recently for the Tier 3 vehicle emissions program, EPA must make the proper test procedure adjustments to maintain the intended level of stringency for existing or new emission and fuel economy (FE) standards. The test procedure adjustments include changes to the method of calculating the emission and FE results that are subject to applicable standards.
To determine the appropriate test procedure adjustments from the changes to the test fuel properties included in the Tier 3 program, the agency performed a study on eleven vehicles operating over the two required test cycles using the two test fuels, the Tier 2 and the new Tier 3 test fuel. The overall results across the test fleet showed a reduction in CO2 of % for the FTP and % for the HFET tests for Tier 3 compared to Tier 2 test fuel. For fuel economy the overall reduction was % for the FTP and % for the HFET tests for Tier 3 compared to Tier 2 test fuel. Throughout, the high levels of statistical significance observed, both for CO2 and fuel economy, suggest that the measured differences in these parameters are actual and in reasonable agreement with the difference projected during the planning of the study.
Tier 3 Certification Fuel Impacts Test Program (PDF)(52 pp, MB, EPAR, January , About PDF)
- Updated with editorial changes January 19,
Independent Peer Review of Draft Final Report
The EPAs Tier 3 Standards
What are the EPA’s Tier 3 standards?
“Tier 3” refers to a set of fuel and vehicle standards adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in After implementation in , the standards immediately reduced toxic air pollution from cars and trucks.
The Tier 3 standards affect both oil companies and vehicle manufacturers. Oil companies must lower the sulfur content of gasoline, making it cleaner to burn. Vehicle manufacturers must improve emission control technologies that reduce harmful tailpipe pollution (such as catalytic converters).
The cleaner fuel will also improve the effectiveness of catalytic converters in existing cars, as well as provide automakers with more options for designing new vehicles.
By setting standards for fuel and vehicles together, the Tier 3 standards achieved significant pollution reductions at the lowest cost possible—with huge benefits for public health.
Huge public health benefits
Transportation is the largest single source of air pollution in the United States. By reducing transportation-related pollution, the EPA’s Tier 3 standards offered nationwide public health benefits.
According to the EPA’s estimates, the Tier 3 standards will by prevent up to 2, premature deaths, avoid up to 2, hospital admissions, and eliminate 19, asthma attackseach year.
United States: Nonroad Diesel Engines
Tier Standards. The first federal standards (Tier 1) for new nonroad (or off-road) diesel engines were adopted in for engines over 37 kW (50 hp), to be phased-in from to In , a Statement of Principles (SOP) pertaining to nonroad diesel engines was signed between EPA, California ARB and engine makers (including Caterpillar, Cummins, Deere, Detroit Diesel, Deutz, Isuzu, Komatsu, Kubota, Mitsubishi, Navistar, New Holland, Wis-Con, and Yanmar). On August 27, , the EPA signed the final rule reflecting the provisions of the SOP . The regulation introduced Tier 1 standards for equipment under 37 kW (50 hp) and increasingly more stringent Tier 2 and Tier 3 standards for all equipment with phase-in schedules from to The Tier standards are met through advanced engine design, with no or only limited use of exhaust gas aftertreatment (oxidation catalysts). Tier 3 standards for NOx+HC are similar in stringency to the standards for highway engines, however Tier 3 standards for PM were never adopted.
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Tier 4 Standards. On May 11, , EPA signed the final rule introducing Tier 4 emission standards, which are phased-in over the period of . The Tier 4 standards require that emissions of PM and NOx be further reduced by about 90%. Such emission reductions can be achieved through the use of control technologies—including advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment—similar to those required by the standards for highway engines.
Nonroad Diesel Fuel. At the Tier stage, the sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuels was not limited by environmental regulations. The oil industry specification was % (wt., max), with the average in-use sulfur level of about % = 3, ppm. To enable sulfur-sensitive control technologies in Tier 4 engines—such as catalytic particulate filters and NOx adsorbers—the EPA mandated reductions in sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuels, as follows:
- ppm effective June for nonroad, locomotive and marine (NRLM) diesel fuels
- 15 ppm (ultra-low sulfur diesel) effective June for nonroad fuel, and June for locomotive and marine fuels
California. In most cases, federal nonroad regulations also apply in California, whose authority to set emission standards for new nonroad engines is limited. The federal Clean Air Act Amendments of (CAA) preempt Californias authority to control emissions from new farm and construction equipment under hp [CAA Section (e)(1)(A)] and require California to receive authorization from the federal EPA for controls over other off-road sources [CAA Section (e)(2)(A)].
The US nonroad emission standards are harmonized to a certain degree with European nonroad emission standards.
EPA emission standards for nonroad diesel engines are published in the US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part Regulatory text, fact sheets and related documents are available from the EPA web site .
The nonroad standards cover mobile nonroad diesel engines of all sizes used in a wide range of construction, agricultural and industrial equipment. The EPA definition of the nonroad engine is based on the principle of mobility/portability, and includes engines installed on (1) self-propelled equipment, (2) on equipment that is propelled while performing its function, or (3) on equipment that is portable or transportable, as indicated by the presence of wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform [40 CFR ]. In other words, nonroad engines are all internal combustion engines except motor vehicle (highway) engines, stationary engines (or engines that remain at one location for more than 12 months), engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.
Effective May 14, , the definition of nonroad engines was changed to also include all diesel powered engines—including stationary ones—used in agricultural operations in California. This change applies only to engines sold in the state of California; stationary engines sold in other states are not classified as nonroad engines.
The nonroad diesel emission regulations are not applicable to all nonroad diesel engines. Exempted are the following nonroad engine categories:
- Engines used in railway locomotives; those are subject to separate EPA regulations.
- Engines used in marine vessels, also covered by separate EPA regulations. Marine engines below 37 kW (50 hp) are subject to Tier —but not Tier 4—nonroad standards. Certain marine engines that are exempted from marine standards may be subject to nonroad regulations.
- Engines used in underground mining equipment. Diesel emissions and air quality in mines are regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
- Hobby engines (below 50 cm3 per cylinder)
Examples of regulated applications include farm tractors, excavators, bulldozers, wheel loaders, backhoe loaders, road graders, diesel lawn tractors, logging equipment, portable generators, skid steer loaders, or forklifts.
A new definition of a compression-ignition (diesel) engine was introduced in the rule, consistent with definitions established for highway engines. The definition focuses on the engine cycle, rather than the ignition mechanism, with the presence of a throttle as an indicator to distinguish between diesel-cycle and otto-cycle operation. Regulating power by controlling the fuel supply in lieu of a throttle corresponds with lean combustion and diesel-cycle operation. This language allows the possibility that a natural gas-fueled engine equipped with a spark plug is considered a compression-ignition engine.
Tier Emission Standards
The nonroad engine regulations were structured as a 3-tiered progression. Each tier involved a phase-in (by horsepower rating) over several years. Tier 1 standards were phased-in from to The more stringent Tier 2 standards took effect from to , and yet more stringent Tier 3 standards phased-in from to (Tier 3 standards applied only for engines from kW).
Tier emissions standards are listed in Table 1. Nonroad regulations use the metric system of units, with regulatory limits expressed in grams of pollutant per kWh.
|kW < 8|
(hp < 11)
|8 ≤ kW < 19|
(11 ≤ hp < 25)
|19≤ kW < 37|
(25 ≤ hp < 50)
|37 ≤ kW < 75|
(50 ≤ hp < )
|75 ≤ kW < |
( ≤ hp < )
| ≤ kW < |
( ≤ hp < )
| ≤ kW < |
( ≤ hp < )
| ≤ kW < |
( ≤ hp < )
|kW ≥ |
(hp ≥ )
|† Not adopted, engines must meet Tier 2 PM standard.|
Manufacturers who signed the Consent Decrees with the EPA may have been required to meet the Tier 3 standards one year ahead of schedule (i.e. beginning in ).
Voluntary, more stringent emission standards that manufacturers could use to earn a designation of Blue Sky Series engines (applicable to Tier certifications) are listed in Table 2.
|Rated Power (kW)||NMHC+NOx||PM|
|kW < 8||()||()|
|8 ≤ kW <19||()||()|
|19 ≤ kW <37||()||()|
|37 ≤ kW < 75||()||()|
|75 ≤ kW <||()||()|
|≤ kW <||()||()|
Engines of all sizes had to meet smoke standards of 20/15/50% opacity at acceleration/lug/peak modes, respectively.
The regulations included several other provisions, such as averaging, banking and trading of emission credits and maximum “family emission limits” (FEL) for emission averaging.
Tier 4 Emission Standards
The Tier 4 emission standards—phased-in from through —introduce substantial reductions of NOx (for engines above 56 kW) and PM (above 19 kW), as well as more stringent HC limits. CO emission limits remain unchanged from the Tier stage.
Engines up to kW. Tier 4 emission standards for engines up to kW are listed in Table 3.
|kW < 8|
(hp < 11)
|8 ≤ kW < 19|
(11 ≤ hp < 25)
|19 ≤ kW < 37|
(25 ≤ hp < 50)
|37 ≤ kW < 56|
(50 ≤ hp < 75)
|56 ≤ kW < |
(75 ≤ hp < )
| ≤ kW ≤ |
( ≤ hp ≤ )
| a - hand-startable, air-cooled, DI engines may be certified to Tier 2 standards through and to an optional PM standard of g/kWh starting in |
b - g/kWh (Tier 2) if manufacturer complies with the g/kWh standard from
c - PM/CO: full compliance from ; NOx/HC: Option 1 (if banked Tier 2 credits used)—50% engines must comply in ; Option 2 (if no Tier 2 credits claimed)—25% engines must comply in , with full compliance from
d - PM/CO: full compliance from ; NOx/HC: 50% engines must comply in
In engines of kW rated power, the NOx and HC standards are phased-in over a few year period, as indicated in the notes to Table 3. The initial standards (PM compliance) are sometimes referred to as the ‘interim Tier 4’ (or ‘Tier 4i’), ‘transitional Tier 4’ or ‘Tier 4 A’, while the final standards (NOx/HC compliance) are sometimes referred to as ‘Tier 4 B’.
As an alternative to introducing the required percentage of Tier 4 compliant engines, manufacturers may certify all their engines to an alternative NOx limit in each model year during the phase-in period. These alternative NOx standards are:
- Engines kW:
- Option 1: NOx = g/kWh = g/bhp-hr (Tier 2 credits used to comply, MY )
- Option 2: NOx = g/kWh = g/bhp-hr (no Tier 2 credits claimed, MY )
- Engines kW: NOx = g/kWh = g/bhp-hr (MY )
Engines Above kW. Tier 4 emission standards for engines above kW are listed in Table 4. The standards are sometimes referred to as ‘transitional Tier 4’, while the limits represent final Tier 4 standards.
|Generator sets > kW||()||()||()||()|
|All engines except gensets > kW||()||()||()||()|
|All engines except gensets||()||()||()||()|
Other Provisions. The Tier 4 regulation and later amendments include a number of additional provisions:
- Smoke Opacity—Existing Tier smoke opacity standards and procedures continue to apply in some engines. Exempted from smoke emission standards are engines certified to PM emission standards at or below g/kWh (because an engine of such low PM level has inherently low smoke emission).
- Crankcase Ventilation—The Tier 4 regulation does not require closed crankcase ventilation in nonroad engines. However, in engines with open crankcases, crankcase emissions must be measured and added to exhaust emissions in assessing compliance.
- DEF Refill Interval—For SCR-equipped nonroad diesel engines, a minimum DEF (urea solution) refill interval is defined as at least as long (in engine-hours) as the vehicle’s fuel capacity .
- Ammonia Emissions—While ammonia emissions are unregulated, the EPA recommends that ammonia slip should be below 10 ppm average over the applicable test cycles .
- Emergency Operation—To facilitate the use of certain nonroad engines in temporary emergency situations, the engines can be equipped with an AECD to override performance inducements related to the emission control system—for example, to allow engine operation without urea in the SCR system during an emergency . This flexibility is intended primarily for engines used in construction equipment and portable equipment used for temporary power generation and flood control.
- ABT Program—Similarly to earlier standards, the Tier 4 regulation includes such provisions as averaging, banking and trading of emission credits and FEL limits for emission averaging.
Test Cycles and Fuels
Nonroad engine emissions are measured on a steady-state test cycle that is equivalent to the ISO C1, 8-mode steady-state test cycle. Other ISO test cycles are allowed for selected applications, such as constant-speed engines (D2 5-mode cycle), variable-speed engines rated under 19 kW (G2 cycle), and marine engines (E3 cycle).
Transient Testing. Tier 4 standards have to be met over both the steady-state test and the nonroad transient cycle, NRTC. The transient testing requirements started with MY for engines below 56 kW, MY for kW, and MY for kW engines. Engines above kW are not tested on the transient test. Also constant-speed, variable-load engines of any power category are not subject to transient testing. The NRTC protocol includes a cold start test. The cold start emissions are weighted at 5% and hot start emissions are weighted at 95% in calculating the final result.
Tier 4 nonroad engines must also meet not-to-exceed standards (NTE), which are measured without reference to any specific test schedule. The NTE standards became effective in for engines above kW; in for kW; and in for engines below 56 kW. In most engines, the NTE limits are set at times the regular standard for each pollutant. In engines certified to NOx standards below g/kWh or PM standards below g/kWh, the NTE multiplier is The NTE standards apply to engines at the time of certification, as well as in use throughout the useful life of the engine. The purpose of the added testing requirements is to prevent the possibility of “defeating” the test cycle by electronic engine controls.
Certification Fuels. Fuels with sulfur levels no greater than wt% (2, ppm) were used for certification testing of Tier engines. From , all Tier 4 engines are tested using fuels of ppm sulfur content. The transition from the ppm S specification to the ppm specification took place in the period (see Certification Diesel Fuel).
A change from measuring total hydrocarbons to nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) has been introduced in the rule. Since there is no standardized EPA method for measuring methane in diesel engine exhaust, manufacturers can either use their own procedures to analyze nonmethane hydrocarbons or measure total hydrocarbons and subtract 2% from the measured hydrocarbon mass to correct for methane.
Environmental Benefit and Cost
At the time of signing the rule, the EPA estimated that by NOx emissions would be reduced by about a million tons per year, the equivalent of taking 35 million passenger cars off the road.
The costs of meeting the emission standards were expected to add under 1% to the purchase price of typical new nonroad diesel equipment, although for some equipment the standards may cause price increases on the order of %. The program was expected to cost about $ per ton of NOx reduced.
Tier 4 Regulation
When the full inventory of older nonroad engines are replaced by Tier 4 engines, annual emission reductions are estimated at , tons of NOx and , tons of PM. By , 12, premature deaths would be prevented annually due to the implementation of the proposed standards.
The estimated costs for added emission controls for the vast majority of equipment was estimated at % as a fraction of total equipment price. For example, for a hp bulldozer that costs approximately $, it would cost up to $6, to add the advanced emission controls and to design the bulldozer to accommodate the modified engine.
EPA estimated that the average cost increase for 15 ppm S fuel would be 7 cents per gallon. This figure would be reduced to 4 cents by anticipated savings in maintenance costs due to low sulfur diesel.
All EPA Emission Standards
Light-Duty Vehicles and Trucks and Motorcycles
View the light-duty vehicles and trucks standards:
- Clean Fuel Fleet -- exhaust emission standards
- Clean Fuel Fleet flexible fuel and dual fuel vehicles -- non-methane organic gas standards
- Tier 0, Tier 1, and Clean Fuel Vehicle (CFV) exhaust emission standards (light-duty trucks only)
- Tier 0, Tier 1, and National Low Emission Vehicle (NLEV) implementation schedule
- Tier 0, Tier 1, NLEV, and CFV exhaust emission standards
- Tier 1 and NLEV Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) exhaust emission standards
- Tier 1 and NLEV evaporative emission standards and implementation schedule
- Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 SFTP exhaust emission standards
- Tier 2 evaporative emission standards
- Tier 2 exhaust emission standards and implementation schedule
Heavy-Duty Highway Engines and Vehicles
View the heavy-duty vehicles and trucks standards:
- Clean Fuel Fleet program -- exhaust emission standards
- Compression-ignition (CI) engines and urban buses -- exhaust emission standards
- Spark-ignition (SI) engines -- exhaust emission standards
- SI and CI engines -- evaporative emission standards
Nonroad Engines and Vehicles
View the nonroad engines and vehicles standards:
- Aircraft -- exhaust emission standards
- CI engines -- exhaust emission standards
- Large SI engines -- exhaust and evaporative emission standards
- Locomotives -- exhaust emission standards
- Marine CI engines -- exhaust emission standards
- Marine SI engines and vessels -- exhaust emission standards
- Recreational engines and vehicles -- exhaust emission standards
- SI engines 19 kilowatts (kW) and below -- exhaust emission standards
- SI engines 19kW and below, recreational engines and vehicles, and marine SI engines -- evaporative emission standards
Fuel Sulfur Standards
View the fuel sulfur standards:
- Gasoline sulfur standards
- Highway, nonroad, locomotive, and marine (NRLM) diesel fuel sulfur standards
Tier standards epa 3
Amendments Related to Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation
On this page:
On February 19, , EPA issued a Direct Final Rule to clarify regulations for the light-duty Tier 3 motor vehicle emissions and fuel standards and for several other mobile source regulations.
The Direct Final Rule included amendments as follows: Corrections to the Tier 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standards and the Quality Assurance Program; Revisions to the test procedures and compliance provisions for nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW; Changes to address ambiguity regarding permissible design approaches for portable fuel containers meeting evaporative emission standards; Revisions to align with current requirements that apply to marine vessels with diesel engines as specified under MARPOL Annex VI; and Corrections to typographical errors in regulatory changes finalized in the Voluntary Quality Assurance Program rulemaking.
EPA received adverse comment on three Tier 3 fuel-related amendments in the Direct Final Rule notice. EPA withdrew these amendments from the Direct Final Rule and acted on them separately. With the exception of these withdrawn amendments, all of the amendments included in the Direct Final Rule became effective on May 5,
Tier 3: What It Means and Why It Matters
By now, you’ve probably seen lots of news headlines talking about the proposed updated Tier 3 standards.
Tier 3 is the shorthand term for national vehicle emissions and fuel standards that will help us make big strides towards cleaner, healthier air. They are designed to reduce the soot, smog and other types of dangerous pollution that come from the tailpipes of our cars and trucks.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) just announced the proposed standards to enthusiastic responses from everyone from health advocates to automakers (including EDF, of course).
What exactly are the Tier 3 standards, and why are they so important? Here are answers to some common questions:
What’s the story behind the Tier 3 standards?
Cars and trucks are one of the biggest sources of air pollution in America. For years, EPA has been looking for ways to reduce the pollution associated with those motor vehicles.
In , they created standards that would attack the air pollution problem at two of its sources at the same time – by reducing impurities in gasoline, so what you put into your car is cleaner, and by improving cars’ emission systems, so what comes out of your car is cleaner.
They called these standards Tier 2.
Now, EPA is proposing to update the standards. The new, improved version – called Tier 3 – will keep the proven approach of treating vehicles and fuels as an integrated system.
Starting in , the new proposal would strengthen the earlier standards in order to reduce the pollutants from both gasoline and auto emissions standards in the most cost-efficient ways possible.
The proposed Tier 3 standards are also designed to work in harmony with America’ new clean car standards, which will improve fleet-wide fuel efficiency in new cars to miles per gallon by the year , and with California’s state standards, which are already stricter than the national average.
How exactly would the Tier 3 standards work?
Cars and light trucks are the second largest emitters of oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds in the U.S. Those are the primary pollutants that form ozone.
According to EPA, the proposed Tier 3 standards would slash the level of those pollutants by 80 percent.
The proposed Tier 3 standards would also establish a 70 percent tighter particulate matter standard. Particulate matter, more commonly known as soot, is one of the most dangerous types of air pollution. It has been linked to asthma attacks, bronchitis, heart attacks and other types of heart and lung diseases.
The proposed Tier 3 standards would reduce other noxious types of air pollution as well, including carbon monoxide, benzene and butadiene. They would reduce fuel vapor emissions to near zero.
At the same time, the proposed Tier 3 standards would reduce the amount of sulfur in gasoline by more than 60 percent, to no more than 10 parts per million of sulfur on an annual average basis by
Lower sulfur levels in gasoline will allow vehicles to run more efficiently.
It also means we’ll see immediate benefits once the proposed standards go into effect in the year That’s because older cars that are already on our roads will emit less tailpipe pollution right away thanks to the cleaner gasoline. (The cleaner emissions systems will be built into new cars, and we’ll see those additional benefits emerge more gradually as Americans buy those cars to replace their old ones).
What are the benefits of Tier 3?
Tier 3 would be good for public health and for the economy
By the year , EPA estimates that Tier 3 would:
- Prevent up to 2, premature deaths every year
- Prevent 3, hospital admissions and asthma-related emergency room visits every year
- Prevent tens of thousands of cases of respiratory illnesses in children every year
EPA also estimates that by , Tier 3 would prevent million lost school or work days each year, and would provide total health-related benefits worth up to $23 billion per year.
How much will Tier 3 cost?
We can reduce tailpipe pollution and provide healthier, longer lives for millions of Americans for less than a penny per gallon of gas.
How will America’s gasoline standard compare to other countries?
The proposed Tier 3 standards for sulfur levels in gasoline are similar to levels that are already required – and being achieved – in Europe, Japan, South Korea, and several other countries (as well as California, here in the U.S.).
Do businesses support Tier 3?
Many businesses do support updating the standards, including automakers and the emissions control industry.
Tier 3 would provide greater regulatory certainty for automakers; a national standard means the auto industry can build a car that can be sold anywhere in the country.
On the day the proposed standards were announced, Michael Stanton, president and CEO of the Association of Global Automakers said:
We have been anxiously awaiting this rulemaking because it is good for the environment and will help harmonize the federal and California programs for both vehicles and fuel … With 15 million new vehicle sales a year, automakers need predictable national fuel quality at the retail pump. Ultra-low sulfur gasoline is already available in California, Europe, and Japan and will enable automakers to use a broader range of technologies to meet the significant environmental challenges facing the industry.
Gloria Bergquist, Spokeswoman for Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers said:
This is a big step forward for this country to catch up to the clean fuels available in other industrialized nations. Automakers have already reduced vehicle emissions by 99 percent, and we’re working to go further while also delivering high quality, affordable vehicles to our customers.
And the United Auto Workers said:
This is one of the most cost-effective ways for us to get cleaner and healthier air while strengthening our domestic auto sector and creating thousands of new jobs … The proposed rule is a win for our economy and a win for public health.
Who else supports Tier 3?
Even before EPA unveiled its proposal, state and local officials, national recreation groups, health groups and the public – as well as the automakers and the emissions control industry all announced their support for updating the standards.
EPA has compiled a list of what all those supporters are saying. It’s a very long list. You can read it here.
What happens next?
EPA will hold two public hearings about the proposed Tier 3 standards, the first on April 24th in Philadelphia and the second on April 29th in Chicago.
EDF will be sending experts to testify at both those hearings, and we’ll report back from them. EPA will also begin accepting public comments soon.
Where can I learn more?
Check out EPA’s website. And check back here for updates.
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Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
On this page:
The final rule establishes the Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards program. The Tier 3 program is part of a comprehensive approach to reducing the impacts of motor vehicles on air quality and public health. The program considers the vehicle and its fuel as an integrated system, setting new vehicle emissions standards and a new gasoline sulfur standard beginning in The vehicle emissions standards will reduce both tailpipe and evaporative emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. The gasoline sulfur standard will enable more stringent vehicle emissions standards and will make emissions control systems more effective.
- Final Rule (PDF)( pp, MB, published April 28, )
- Regulatory Impact Analysis (PDF)( pp, 15 MB, EPAR, February )
- Summary and Analysis of Comments (PDF)( pp, 6 MB, EPAR, February )
- EPA Sets Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards (PDF)(5 pp, K, EPAF, March )
- EPA Sets Tier 3 Tailpipe and Evaporative Emission and Vehicle Fuel Standards (PDF)(5 pp, K, EPAF, March )
- Tier 3 Gasoline Sulfur Standard’s Impact on Gasoline Refining (PDF)(4 pp, K, EPAF, March )
- EPA Sets Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Strengthens Clean Cars Program (PDF)(2 pp, K, EPAF, March )