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2000 6mm Plastic BB Pellets Air Soft Guns Ammo Airsoft BB's bullets Multi colors

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BB gun

Air gun that uses metallic ball projectiles called BBs

For airguns firing non-spherical pellets, see Pellet gun. For airguns firing 6 mm plastic projectiles, see Airsoft gun.

"Bee-bee" redirects here. For other uses, see Beebee.

BB pistol with CO
2cartridges and BBs

A BB gun is a type of air gun designed to shoot metallic ballprojectiles called BBs (not to be confused with bearing balls), which are approximately the same size as BB-sizeleadbirdshot (0.180 in or 4.6 mm in diameter). Modern BB guns usually have a smoothborebarrel with a 4.5 mm (0.177 in) caliber, and use steel balls that measure 4.3–4.4 mm (0.171–0.173 in) in diameter and 0.33–0.35 g (5.1–5.4 gr) in weight, usually zinc- or copper-plated for corrosion resistance. Some manufacturers still make the slightly larger traditional lead balls that weigh around 0.48–0.50 g (7.4–7.7 gr), which are generally intended for use in rifled barrels (due to lead having better malleability and exerting less wear on riflings).

The term "BB gun" is frequently used to describe airsoft guns, which shoot plastic balls (also often incorrectly referred to as "BBs") that are larger (usually 6 mm or 0.24 in in diameter) but much less dense than metal BBs,[1] and have significantly lower ballistic performance. The term is also sometimes used incorrectly to describe a pellet gun, which shoots diabolo-shaped (not spherical) lead projectiles. Although some BB guns can also shoot pellets, the reverse situation is not true: steel BB balls have greater stiffness and are not meant to be shot from pellet guns, whose barrels are typically rifled and thus can get stuck (similar to a squib load in firearms) and lead to a catastrophicfailure.


The term BB originated from the nomenclature of the size of lead shots used in a smoothboreshotgun. Size "BB" shots were normally 0.180 in (4.6 mm), but tended to vary considerably in size due to the loose tolerances in shotshells. The highest size shotgun pellet commonly used was named 00 or double ought and was used for hunting deer and thus called buckshot, while the smaller BB-sized shot was typically used to shoot small/medium-sized game birds and therefore was a birdshot.

In 1886, the Markham Air Rifle Company in Plymouth, Michigan produced the first wooden-construct spring-piston air rifle design as a youth training gun, and used the BB-size birdshot as the chosen ammunition. Two years later, the neighbouring Plymouth Air Rifle Company (later renamed Daisy Manufacturing Company in 1895) introduced the first full-metal airgun that also fired BB shots — the Daisy BB Gun, which became a very popular household name due to its successful marketing. Around 1900, Daisy changed their BB-size bore diameter to 0.175 in (4.4 mm), and began to market precision-made lead shot specifically for their BB guns. They called these "round shots", but the BB name was already well established, and most users continued calling their guns BB guns, and the projectiles as BB shots or just BBs.

Subsequently, the term BB became generic, and is used loosely referring to any small spherical projectiles of various calibers and materials. This includes bearing balls often utilized by anti-personnel mines, .177 caliber lead/steel shots used by air guns, plastic round balls (such as the pellets used by airsoft guns), small marbles and many others. It has become ubiquitous to refer to any steel ball, such as a BB, as a "ball bearing". However, BBs should not be confused with a ball bearing, which is a mechanical component using small internal rolling balls to reduce friction between moving parts of machines.


BB guns can use any of the operating mechanisms used for air guns. However, due to the inherent limited accuracy and short effective range of the projectile, only the simpler and less expensive mechanisms are generally used for guns designed to fire only BBs.[citation needed]

Because the strength of the steel BB does not allow it to be swaged with the low propelling force used to accelerate it through the barrel, BBs are slightly smaller (4.3 to 4.4 mm (0.171 to 0.173 in)) than the internal diameter of the barrel (4.5 mm (0.177 in)). This limits accuracy because little spin is imparted on the BB. It also limits range, because some of the pressurized gas used to accelerate the BB leaks around it and reduces the overall efficiency. Since a BB will easily roll unhindered down the barrel, it is common to find guns that use a magnet in the loading mechanism to hold the BB at the rear of the barrel until it is fired.[citation needed]

The traditional and still most common powerplant for BB guns is the spring-piston pump, usually patterned after a lever-action rifle or a pump-action shotgun. The lever-action rifle was the first type of BB gun, and still dominates the inexpensive youth BB gun market. The Daisy Model 25, modeled after a pump-action shotgun with a trombone pump-action mechanism, dominated the low-price, higher-performance market for over 50 years. Lever-action models generally have very low velocities, around 84 m/s (275 ft/s), a result of the weak springs used to keep cocking efforts low for use by youths. The Daisy Model 25 typically achieved the highest velocities of its day, ranging from 114 to 145 m/s (375 to 475 ft/s).[2]

Multiple-pump pneumatic guns are also common. Many pneumatic pellet guns provide the ability to use BBs as a cheaper alternative to lead shot. Some of these guns have rifled barrels, but the slightly undersized BBs do not swage in the barrel, so the rifling does not impart a significant spin. These are the types of guns that will benefit most from using precision lead BB shot. The pneumatic BB gun can attain much higher velocities than the traditional spring piston types.[citation needed]

The last common type of power for BB guns is compressed gas, most commonly the Powerlet cartridges. The powerlet is a disposable metal gas cylinder containing 12 grams (190 gr) of compressed carbon dioxide, with a self-contained valve to release the CO2 which expands to propel the BB. These are primarily used in BB pistols, and are capable of rapid firing unlike spring-piston or pneumatic types. A typical CO2 BB pistol uses a spring-loaded magazine to feed BBs, and a double-action trigger mechanism to chamber a BB and cock the hammer. However some guns (either to stay true to the original gun or to make the trigger pull easier) do have a single-action trigger. Either type of gun may also have blowback action, where CO2 will push the slide back in addition to firing a BB. When firing, the hammer strikes an internal valve linked to the CO2 source, which releases a measured amount of CO2 gas to fire the BB; this also gives it realistic recoil and muzzle report features. Many CO2 BB guns are patterned after popular firearms such as the Colt M1911, and can be used for training as well as recreation.[citation needed]

Some gas-powered BB guns use a larger source of gas, and provide machine gun-like fire. These types, most notably the Shooting Star Tommy Gun (originally known as the Feltman) are commonly found at carnivals. The MacGlashan BB Gun was used to train antiaircraft gunners in the United States Army Air Corps and United States Navy during World War II. A popular commercial model was the Larc M-19, which used 1 pound (454 g) canisters of Freon-12 refrigerant. These types have very simple operating mechanisms, based on a venturi pump. The gas is released in a constant stream, and this is used to suck the BBs up into the barrel at rates as high as 3600 rounds per minute.[3]

Competition use[edit]

It is possible to shoot competitively with a BB gun. The National Rifle Association youth shooting program has classifications for smoothbore BB guns, open to ages 14–18, and these classes are popular with youth groups such as 4-H and the Boy Scouts of America.


Main article: Toy and sport gun safety

BB gun injury showing how a 4.5 mm steel BB can penetrate the middle finger on the left hand

BB guns can shoot faster than 60 m/s (200 ft/s), but are often less powerful than a conventional pellet airgun. Pellet airguns have the ability to fire considerably faster, even beyond 170 m/s (560 ft/s).[4][5][6] Although claims are often exaggerated, a few airguns can actually fire a standard 0.177 caliber lead pellet faster than 320 m/s (1,000 ft/s), but these are generally not BB-firing guns.

A BB with a velocity of 45 m/s (150 ft/s) has skin-piercing capability, and a velocity reaching 60 m/s (200 ft/s) can fracture bone.[7] This is potentially lethal, and this potential increases with velocity, but also rapidly decreases with distance. The effective penetrating range of a BB gun with a muzzle velocity of 120 to 180 m/s (390 to 590 ft/s) is approximately 18 m (60 ft). A person wearing jeans at this distance would not sustain serious injury. However, even at this distance a BB still might penetrate bare skin, and even if not, could leave a severe and painful bruise. The maximum range of a BB gun in the 120 to 180 m/s (390 to 590 ft/s) range is 220 to 330 m (240 to 360 yd), provided the muzzle is elevated to the optimum angle.

Steel BBs are also notably prone to ricochet off hard surfaces such as brick, concrete, metal, or wood end grain. Eye protection is essential when shooting BBs at these materials, more so than when shooting lead pellets, since a BB bouncing off a hard surface can retain a large portion of its initial energy (pellets usually flatten and absorb energy), and could easily cause serious eye damage.[citation needed]

Quick Kill/Quick Fire training[edit]

The U.S. Army trained recruits in Quick Kill techniques using Daisy Model 99 BB guns to improve soldiers using their weapons in the Vietnam War from 1967 to 1973.[8] The technique was developed for the Army by Bobby Lamar "Lucky" McDaniel and Mike Jennings. The sights were removed from the BB guns for this training. The name was later changed to "Quick Fire" training.[citation needed]

Legal status[edit]

BB guns are often regulated as a typical air gun.[citation needed]Air gun laws vary widely by local jurisdiction.

In popular culture[edit]

One of the most famous BB guns is the Red Ryder BB Gun by Daisy Outdoor Products, modelled after the Winchesterlever-actionrifle. First introduced in 1940, it became an iconic American toy, and as of 2009 it was still in production. It was prominently featured in A Christmas Story, in which Ralphie Parker requests one for Christmas, but is repeatedly rebuffed with the warning "You'll shoot your eye out". The movie's fictional BB gun, described as the "Red Ryder carbine-action, two hundred shot Range Model air rifle with a compass in the stock and this thing which tells time", was not a real gun. The Red Ryder featured in the movie was specially made to match author Jean Shepherd's story (which may be artistic license, but it was the configuration Shepherd said he remembered).[9] The guns and a stand-up advertisement featuring the Red Ryder character appeared in a Higbee's store window in the film, along with dolls, a train, and Radio Flyer wagons.

An episode of My Name Is Earl called "BB" focused on the title character having accidentally shot a girl with a BB gun when he was younger, inadvertently causing a falling-out between her and her father.[10]

In the 1990 film Home Alone, Buzz owns a BB rifle gun, which Kevin uses on the Wet Bandits in defense of his home.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Laurence. "BB Guns vs Airsoft Whats the Difference?". Socom Tactical Airsoft. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  2. ^"Model 25 Pump Gun | Daisy Outdoor Products". Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  3. ^Peter Hathaway Capstick (1990). Death in a Lonely Land: More Hunting, Fishing, and Shooting on Five Continents. Macmillan. pp. 11–19. ISBN .
  4. ^"Faster isn't always better". Air gun Depot.
  5. ^Pike, T.(2021, March 12). The 13 Best Air Rifles Reviewed & Revealed ( Hands-on 2021 Airgun Guide). Outdoor Empire.
  6. ^Mogni, Benjamin; Maines, Sarah (2019-07-22). "Homicide Using an Air Weapon". Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine. 3 (3): 289–294. doi:10.5811/cpcem.2019.6.42982. PMC 6682219. PMID 31404301.
  7. ^Tsui, Cl; Tsui, Kl; Tang, Yh (November 2010). "Ball Bearing (BB) Gun Injuries". Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine. 17 (5): 488–491. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/102490791001700510. S2CID 9643574.
  8. ^"Armed Forces: Quick Skill". Time. July 14, 1967. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  9. ^Daisy Red Ryder: A History (DVD extra). Warner Home Video. 2003.
  10. ^"BB" at IMDb

External links[edit]

  • US Patent 4,083,349 Rapid-fire, fluid actuated B.B. gun, the patent for the Larc M-19 BB machine gun
  • [1] Best BB gun on the market
  • How to Get Started, Airgun Competition page from NRA site, covering air gun and BB gun competitions
  • US Army Quick Kill training
  • How to Get Started, Airgun Competition page from NRA site, covering air gun and BB gun competitions
  • BB guns Reference to BB gun history, and BB gun types
  • Airsoft vs. BB Gun How to Tell Them Apart and Choose the Right Air Gun for You

Airsoft pellets

Low-quality 6 mm 0.12 g plastic airsoft pellets

Airsoft pellets are sphericalprojectiles used by airsoft guns. Typically made of plastic,[1] they usually measure around 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter (though selective models use 8 mm),[1] and weigh 0.12–0.40 g (1.9–6.2 gr), with the most common weights being 0.12 g and 0.20 g, while 0.25 g, 0.28 g, 0.30 g and 0.40 g pellets are also commonplace.[1] Though frequently referred to as "BBs" among airsoft users, these pellets are not the same as either of the 4.5 mm metal projectiles that BB guns fire,[2] or the 4.6 mm (0.180 in)-sizedbirdshot from which the term "BB" originated.[3]


Although the majority of pellets bought and used are simple spherical projectiles made of plastic, some of the following special varieties can be used to give a player an advantage, such as higher quality pellets.

High quality Airsoft pellets.


Biodegradable pellets are available, and are often required by outdoor fields where sweeping is not an option. Conventional pellets pollute the environment, as most non-biodegradable pellets have a mineral or petroleum-based center, coated in non-biodegradable plastics, thus ensuring they will stay in the environment for several hundred years if not collected. Biodegradable pellets are made of various types of resin, often developed for the agricultural industry, and better makes are certified as compostable. Commonly used plastic resins include polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) which is based on renewable materials like corn products and a molecular formula of (C3H4O2)n.[4] There is a mixture of degradable processes being used, such as soil microbes and photosensitive degradation. Biodegradable pellets are currently being produced with all the characteristics of the best of the conventional, with homogeneous resin construction.

Most high-quality pellets are available in a non-biodegradable version, as well as a biodegradable version that costs slightly more. Both bio- and non-biodegradable pellets are popular and widely available.


“clear peach”

clear reds that were bleached by sunlight. Only 28 were found in Santee, California.


Glow-in-the-dark pellets, known as tracer pellets, can be used in conjunction with a device that "charges" the pellets by flashing them with a burst of light before leaving the barrel so that they remain luminescent in flight for use during nocturnal games/operations. This tracer unit is usually hidden from view, often disguised as a suppressor, or is included inside the magazine or hop-up unit. There are also biodegradable tracer pellets available.

Non-traceable pellets[edit]

This type of pellet is dark-colored so that the opponent has a tougher time spotting the pellets' origin, as the most common pellet color is white, which makes it easy for the opposition to spot the shooter by following the trail of pellets. Two major problems of this variant of pellet are that there are few high-quality pellets in this color and the shooter has a difficult time seeing his own trail of shots.[5]

Paint-spherical projectiles[edit]

Paint-filled pellets are also available, called "paintballs", which are very similar to those used in paintball. Airsoft models equipped with the hop-up projectile stabilizing system are not able to use these, as the thin shells are liable to break in the barrel, soiling it with paint. These special pellets are also incompatible with airsoft models using mechanized feeding systems, such as high capacity magazines, for the same reason. With some companies, the use of paintballs voids the airsoft gun's warranty; paint may get into the mechanical workings of the airsoft gun and damage parts beyond simple maintenance. These issues may be fixed by removing the hop-up unit, which can void the warranty, and also switching to a low or mid-capacity magazine with no mechanized feed.


A specialized pellet coated in a powder that leaves a small colored mark when it strikes a surface. The powder deposits from these pellets are left in any part of the airsoft gun or storage unit that the pellet comes in contact with; build-up over time, without cleaning, can cause malfunctions or damage to moving parts.[6]

Made from 100% silica, the material in these pellets is very evenly distributed, improving flight characteristics. Some accounts indicate that these pellets are capable of breaking glass and industry-standard protective eyewears. Due to safety concerns and reports of injuries caused by this type of pellets,[6] it is commonly prohibited in professional airsoft facilities.


Metal pellets are also marketed for use in airsoft guns. These pellets are heavier and harder than conventional polymer pellets, and the impact from a metal pellet can injure players. Safety concerns make metallic pellets suitable only for target shooting. The added weight reduces the effect of crosswind on the pellet, imparting more accuracy when fired at longer ranges in outdoor environments where wind would significantly alter the trajectory of traditional pellets. Many airsoft locations where players can pay to play against others prohibit the use of metallic pellets due to the fact they are more likely to penetrate skin. Metallic pellets are mostly used in a standard pump-action or carbon dioxide-powered BB guns.


Created from laboratory-grown crystal lattice structures, these pellets are individually machined to precise specifications that ensure uniform weight, dimensions and surface shape. This precision and uniformity provides ideal ballistic performance and consistent flight patterns. The manufacturing process and materials are much more costly than molded polymer pellets – as a result, ceramic pellets are considerably more expensive than standard airsoft pellets. The material is able to defeat standard eye protection due to the weight and higher energy required to propel it, thus unsuitable for use against other human targets

Pellet mass[edit]

Pellet mass is an important factor when choosing pellets. The pellet's mass influences several aspects of pellet performance:

  • Velocity: Lighter pellets achieve higher velocities, but are more prone to influence from external factors like wind. Lighter pellets also decelerate (lose velocity) faster than heavier pellets. Due to the increased momentum of a heavier pellet, it will hit harder than a lighter one. In addition, while apparently counterintuitive, lighter pellets can actually decrease range due to the mechanics of hop-up.
  • Energy: Lighter pellets have higher kinetic energy in lower-velocity guns, but heavier pellets show trends to have higher kinetic energy in guns that shoot 620+ feet per second.[7]
  • Trajectory: The curvature of a projectile (trajectory) determines its range and lighter pellets typically result in much more curved or unpredictable trajectories, although using a hop-up can flatten, regulate and extend trajectory.
  • Hardware: Heavier pellets may require a more powerful airsoft gun and often necessitates upgraded springs and other gun parts.

A player's choice of pellet mass is governed by their gaming style (assaulting vs. sniping), the airsoft gun used (internal parts), game venue condition (in/outdoor) and size, and muzzle velocity regulations.

Also, the quality of the individual pellets may influence choice of price-range or manufacturer. Low-cost pellets are often considered to have such negative characteristics as residual plastic from the moulding process (flash); lower impact resistance and some deviation from perfect spherical shape. Cheaper pellets are known to shatter when fired, which can cause irreparable damage to the internals of the gun. Higher cost BBs generally have a smoother finish, are more impact resistant and are perfectly spherical.

6 mm airsoft pellets[edit]

6 mm is the industrial standard size used in almost all spring, electric and gas airsoft guns. A wide variety of pellet masses are also available for different usages.

  • 0.11 g – Manufactured by HFC, same use as .12 gram. Extremely Uncommon.
  • 0.12 g – Extremely common, standard weight for all low-grade AEG's and spring guns. Not to be used in any small arms beyond low-cost, low quality replicas firing under 250 fps. These pellets are notorious for breaking inside high-powered guns because they are not hollow inside. The low weight of this pellet also causes it to be extremely inaccurate because they are easily affected by the slightest of breezes.[8]
  • 0.135 g – Same uses as 0.12 g. Extremely Uncommon. MFI standard. Not to be used in most guns.
  • 0.15 g – Same uses as 0.12 g. Uncommon. Made only by Air Venturi, Red Jacket, Elite Force, and Black Ops USA.
  • 0.16 g – Essentially the same as the 0.15 g pellets. Made only by Air Venturi.
  • 0.20 g – Second-most common weight. Standard for all chronograph tests in regions, where gun power output is measured in feet per second (FPS). AEGs are able to use these, however, most players will use heavier masses due to the increased accuracy and range. Biodegradable versions made by Green Devil or G&G being one of the most popular makes in the Scandinavian countries and many other parts of Europe & UK.
  • 0.21 g – Homemade by covering .20 g with pencil lead. Great for "paintball" but leaves residue in barrel.
  • 0.22 g – Available from Pyramyd Air.[9]
  • 0.23 g – Heavier pellets for AEGs. Blends speed of 0.20 g with range and accuracy of 0.25 g. Made popular by Tsunami Airsoft. Used less now in favor of .20 g & .25 g
  • 0.24 g – Only known manufacturers are Airstrike (a subsidiary of Daisy) and Crosman
  • 0.25 g – Third-most common weight, especially popular for the higher-powered AEGs used in America. This is the heaviest mass for lower-powered AEGs, blowback and spring guns. Tokyo Marui standard AEGs, gas and spring guns are set at the factory for 0.25 gram pellets, and they usually include a package of 200 of these with the gun. These are available in bio- and non-biodegradable versions from many sellers including Valken, EliteForce, 6mmProShop and Matrix.[10] Biodegradable versions made by Green Devil or G&G being one of the most popular makes in the Scandinavian countries and many other parts of Europe & UK.
  • 0.26 g – Made by TSD in biodegradable form.
  • 0.27 g – Made by Bioval BBBMAX. They are (ostensibly) considered to be of the same grade, if not higher than the Maruzen SGM, while being significantly less expensive.
  • 0.28 g – Most used weight in Northern Europe. Suitable for modern standard AEGs. Typically cheaper than 0.30 g but yields similar performance. Biodegradable versions are made by most manufacturers.
  • 0.29 g – Maruzen Super Grandmaster pellets, designed for their Air Precision Shooting series of airsoft guns. O
  • 0.30 g – Standard mass for most sniper rifles. Also recommended weight for tuned AEGs. Have become more common in recent times with some of the top brands like Bioval and Bioshot, Biodegradable versions made by various manufacturers including G&G and Tokyo Marui.
  • 0.32 g – Also standard for sniper rifles. Offers excellent balance of velocity and stability for most spring and gas sniper rifles. These are available from Evike, Elite Force, and other BB manufacturers.[11] A well-known brand is Goldenball.
  • 0.36 g – Heavier pellets for sniper rifles. Slower, but have high stability. Produced by Madbull Airsoft, among others. BB Bastard manufactures a ceramic pellet in this mass class.
  • 0.40 g – Heavy pellets for airsoft sniper rifles. Mad Bull is a known producer. Even slower than 0.36 g but even more stable and maintains its velocity better.
  • 0.43 g – For the highest level of upgrades in spring and gas sniper rifles. Usually graphite-coated.
  • 0.66 g – For extreme long-range shooting, not used against human targets. This is a CNC-machined ceramic pellet made by BB Bastard.
  • 0.90 g – Nickel-plated steel BBs sold by UK's Abacus Claysports. Air gun grade, not used against human targets.

8 mm airsoft pellets[edit]

8 mm pellets are most commonly used in gas-powered airsoft shotguns with high velocities.

  • 0.27 g – Low mass
  • 0.34 g (Normal) — Standard mass
  • 0.35 g (Biodegradable) — Standard mass
  • 0.40 g
  • 0.45 g
  • 0.48 g
  • 0.50 g
  • 0.90 g – Heaviest mass

Flight physics[edit]

Pellet muzzle velocity and energy[edit]

Velocity vs. energy chart for 6 mm Airsoft pellets.

The pellet speed of spring-powered and automatic electric guns is determined in large part by the tension of the gun's main spring. Muzzle velocity limits are between 90 and 120 m/s (300 and 390 ft/s) for AEGs and 120 to 170 m/s (390–560 ft/s) for single-shot spring sniper rifles.[12]

For comparison purposes, 3.00 g (46+3⁄10 gr) is the typical mass of a paintball pellet, and 0.2 g (3+9⁄100 gr) is the standard for an airsoft pellet. At 3 g mass, a pellet flying at 100 m/s (330 ft/s) has 15 J of kinetic energy, while a 0.20 g has 1 J. It is important to distinguish that, in airsoft, the terminal impact energy is very close to the kinetic energy of the pellet because the collision is almost completely elastic. On the other hand, in paintball, the pellet fractures upon impact, leading to an inelastic collision with energy loss, and thus the impact energy is smaller than the kinetic energy of the pellet. Nevertheless, the typical impact energies of the airsoft pellet tend to be much smaller than of the paintball.

Pellet ballistics[edit]

impact energy dependence on distance of impact for a typical airsoft pellet

While a pellet's muzzle velocity is important for safety proposes, it will lose velocity during flight due to drag. The typical deceleration of a pellet of mass "m" and diameter "D" is given by the quadratic drag:

{\displaystyle A_{\text{drag}}={\frac {1}{2m}}\rho _{\text{air}}v^{2}\cdot 0.47\cdot \pi \left({\frac {D}{2}}\right)^{2}}

where v is the instantaneous velocity of the pellet. For typical values of the pellet (m = 0.2 g, v = 120 m/s, D = 6 mm), the drag can be very high ({\displaystyle 576\ \mathrm {m} /\mathrm {s} ^{2}}), which means that the velocity decreases quite fast.

The above equation has a simple solution for velocity vs. distance:

{\displaystyle v={v_{0}}{e^{-s/{s_{0}}}}}

where {\displaystyle {v_{0}}} is the initial velocity, s is the distance travelled, and {\displaystyle {s_{0}}} is the distance over which the velocity is reduced to 1/e of {\displaystyle {v_{0}}}:

{\displaystyle {{s}_{0}}={\frac {8m}{{{\rho }_{air}}\cdot 0.47\cdot \pi \cdot {{D}^{2}}}}}

In particular, for typical values and neglecting wind effects or hop-up usage, a straight shot from a height of 1.8 m (5.9 ft) has a range of 34 m (37 yd). On ground hit, the impact energy of the pellet is 0.1 J. However, the same shot at close quarters (e.g. 5 m distance) has an impact energy of 1 J (see figure).

Dangers to humans[edit]

See also: Airsoft safety

Airsoft pellets travelling with sufficient velocity can leave small superficial wounds when hitting exposed skin. While this can be painful, these wounds are typically closedcontusions and heal quickly without needing any medical attention. However, pellets can cause more serious damage to the more vulnerable parts of the body, such as the eyes and ears. Lower protective face masks are recommended during airsoft matches to shield players' nose, mouth, teeth and ears, and goggles or other protective eyewear are mandatory for eye protection.

The critical velocity required for skin penetration can be calculated using the formula:

{\displaystyle v_{\text{cr}}=162.1e^{-0.38{\sqrt {m}}}}

where m is the mass of a spherical bullet, in grams. Penetration is defined here as entering the skin to a depth of more than half of the spherical pellet's diameter.

Accordingly, a typical 0.20 g airsoft pellet will penetrate the skin at 136.7 m/s (448 ft/s). Because many high-end AEGs, spring- and gas-powered airsoft guns can achieve such velocity at close ranges, many airsoft venues set strict limits on the maximum muzzle velocities allowed on the field, requiring each player to undergo a chronograph test prior to participating in a game. Some venues even have restrictions on minimal engagement distances, where shooting at opponents nearer than a set distance is prohibited, and a "bang bang" rule (players imitate firing by shouting "bang bang" instead of really firing the weapon) is often implemented.

The following excerpts from the United Kingdom Parliament's "Principles of Firearms Control"[13] expound on the level of danger involved with low-energy projectiles:

"25. The Firearms Act 1968 defines a firearm "a lethal barreled weapon of any description from which any shot, bullet or other :missile can be discharged".[51] In this context, a "lethal weapon" means a weapon capable of firing a projectile with sufficient :force to inflict more than a trivial injury, i.e. with a force sufficient to puncture the skin.[52] The force with which a firearm :is able to deliver a projectile is normally expressed in terms of the kinetic energy it generates at its muzzle—the "muzzle energy". :This energy is normally expressed in units of foot-pounds (ft·lbs) or joules (J).[53]

"26. The Home Office and the Forensic Science Service considers that the lowest level of muzzle energy capable of inflicting a penetrating wound is one foot pound force (1.35 J): below these power levels, weapons are "incapable of penetrating even vulnerable parts of the body, such as the eye".[54] However, more recent analysis by the Forensic Science Agency for Northern Ireland has indicated that a more reasonable assessment of the minimum muzzle energy required to inflict a penetrating wound lies between 2.2 and 3.0 ft·lbf (3 to 4 J).[55] We will deal more fully with this discrepancy at paragraphs 123 to 130 below."

"123. The power level at and above which an air weapon is considered a firearm in law is presently set at 1 ft·lbf. However, the Forensic Science Agency of Northern Ireland has more recently assessed the power level at which a barreled weapon is capable of inflicting a lethal wound as between 2.2 and 3 ft·lbf, and the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland has proposed that the law relating to firearms in Northern Ireland be amended to take this into account.[201]"

On another document also regarding firearms, "The Eleventh Annual Report of the Firearms Consultative Committee", the penetration levels lies between 2 and 3 J based on a research for US Army and DiMaio's work in "Minimal Velocities Necessary for Perforation of Skin by Air Pellets and Bullets, Journal of Forensic Sciences".

DateReferenceEnergy levelObservations
April 2000Principles of firearms control [paragraph 26], Home Office and the Forensic Science Service;1.35Jpenetrating wound (later changed by paragraph 123, see below)
April 2000Principles of firearms control [paragraph 123], Forensic Science Agency for Northern Ireland;3.00J-4.00Jpenetrating[26]/lethal[123] wound
March 2002The Eleventh Annual Report of the Firearms Consultative Committee DiMaio's work in Minimal Velocities Necessary for Perforation of Skin by Air Pellets and Bullets, Journal of Forensic Sciences;2.00J-3.00Jpenetration level

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abc"Airsoft BBs: All You Need To Know - Sizes, Weights, Types, Colors, and Information". High Speed BBs. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  2. ^"BB Guns Versus Airsoft Guns - Pros & Cons". Replica Airguns. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  3. ^"Beginners Guide to Airsoft". Tech Brigade. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  4. ^"Biodegradable Airsoft BBs - Airsoft BBs: All You Need To Know | Sizes, Weights, Types, Colors, and Information". Retrieved 3 April 2020.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^"Airsoft BB Colors - Airsoft BBs: All You Need To Know | Sizes, Weights, Types, Colors, and Information". Retrieved 3 April 2020.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ ab"6mm BB Pellets. Plastic, Biodegradable & Marker » AirsoftCore". AirsoftCore. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  7. ^[1] "Measuring the Velocity and Kinetic Energy of Airsoft BBs using a Ballistic Pendulum", Branden Fletcher, Jason Cross, John Cavassa, and Riley Compton,
  8. ^"Ultimate Airsoft Guide 2019: 18,657+ Words of Top MVP Intel - Airsoft Pal".
  9. ^"Airgun Pellets". Pyramyd Air. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  10. ^".25g 6mm Airsoft BBs - The Best Airsoft BBs and Airsoft Ammo". Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  11. ^".32g 6mm Airsoft BBs - The Best Airsoft BBs and Airsoft Ammo". Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  12. ^"Airsoft Guide and Information". Air Splat. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  13. ^Principles of Firearms Control. Home Affairs Select Committee Second Report. 6 April 2000.

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