Volkswagen Type 2
Volkswagen panel van
The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US), Camper (UK) or Bulli (Germany), is a forward controllight commercial vehicle introduced in by the German automakerVolkswagen as its second car model. Following – and initially deriving from – Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 (Beetle), it was given the factory designation Type 2.
As one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A, and the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adapting the rear-engine configuration of the Corvair car in the same manner in which the VW Type 2 adapted the Type 1 layout.
European competition included the – Citroën H Van, the – Renault Estafette (both FF layout), and the – FR layoutFord Transit.
Japanese manufacturers also introduced similar vehicles, such as the Nissan Caravan, Toyota LiteAce and Subaru Sambar.
Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", and, because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the s, "Hippie van/bus".
Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2 series of Type 2, which ceased production on 31 December , due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This (after the termination of its T3 successor in South Africa) marked the end of the era of rear-engine Volkswagens, which originated in with their Type 1 prototypes.
The concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. (It has similarities in concept to the s Rumpler Tropfenwagen and s Dymaxion car by Buckminster Fuller, neither of which reached production.) Pon visited Wolfsburg in , intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw a Plattenwagen, an improvised parts-mover based on the Type 1 chassis, and realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan. He first sketched the van in a doodle dated 23 April , proposing a payload of kg (1,lb) and placing the driver at the very front. The sketch is now in the Rijksmuseum. Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1.
When capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1's. Engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 82, enabling the ton van to use a 25hp (19kW) flat four engine.
Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor (with an initial drag coefficient ofCd=), engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=, exceeding the Type 1's Cd= Volkswagen's new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff (appointed 1 January ) approved the van for production on 19 May  and the first production model, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models were offered: the Kombi (with two side windows and middle and rear seats that were easily removable by one person), and the Commercial. The Microbus was added in May , joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June  In all 9, Type 2s were produced in their first year of production.
An ambulance model was added in December which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, and added a "tailgate"-style rear door. These features became standard on the Type 2 from to  11, Type 2s were built in the model year. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August , and it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were heavily modified in 
Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions "T1" to "T5" (a nomenclature only invented after the introduction of the front-drive T4 which replaced the T3). However, only generations T1 to T3 can be seen as directly related to the Beetle (see below for details).
The Type 2, along with the Citroën H Van, are among the first 'forward control' vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the GM Bedford CA, RAF, Renault Estafette, BMC Morris J4, and Commer FC also used the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van adopted the use of the rear-engine layout of the Corvair car in the same manner that the Type 2 had used the rear-engine layout of the Type 1, using the Corvair's horizontally opposed, 6 cylinder air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which could not easily be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but generally advantageous in traction and interior noise. The Corvair pickup used a folding side panel that functioned as a ramp into the bed when opened, and was called the "Rampside". The VW "pickup" in both single and double cab versions had a bed/floor that was flat from front to back at the height of the engine compartment cover, which had the advantage of a flat load floor but at a greater height, while the Corvair "pickup" bed/floor stepped down in front of the engine compartment to a much lower load floor which worked well with the unique "Rampside" configuration for loading.
Decades after production of the Type 2 ended, Volkswagen announced in that they would be bringing an electric VW microbus out based on the new MEB platform in 
The Type 2 was available as a:
- Panel van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats.
- Double-door Panel Van, a delivery van without side windows or rear seats and cargo doors on both sides.
- High Roof Panel Van (German: Hochdach), a delivery van with raised roof.
- Kombi, from German: Kombinationskraftwagen (combination motor vehicle), with side windows and removable rear seats, both a passenger and a cargo vehicle combined.
- Bus, also called a Volkswagen Caravelle, a van with more comfortable interior reminiscent of passenger cars since the third generation.
- Lotação (share taxi), a version exclusive to Brazil, with 6 front-hinged doors for the passenger area and 4 bench-seats, catering to the supplemental public transport segment. Available from to , in both the split-window and "clipper" (fitted with the bay-window front panel) bodystyles.
- Samba-Bus, a van with skylight windows and cloth sunroof, first generation only, also known as a Deluxe Microbus. They were marketed for touring the Alps.
- Flatbed pickup truck, or Single Cab, also available with wider load bed.
- Crew cab pick-up, a flatbed truck with extended cab and two rows of seats, also called a Doka, from German: Doppelkabine.
- Westfalia camping van, "Westy", with Westfalia roof and interior. Included optional "pop up" top.
- Adventurewagen camping van, with high roof and camping units from Adventurewagen.
- Semi-camping van that can also still be used as a passenger car and transporter, sacrificing some camping comforts. "Multivan" or "Weekender", available from the third generation on.
Apart from these factory variants, there were a multitude of third-party conversions available, some of which were offered through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire engines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by companies other than Westfalia. There were even 30 Klv 20 rail-going draisines built for Deutsche Bundesbahn in 
In South Africa, it is known as a well-loved variation of the ice cream van (first, second and third generations).
First generation (T1; )
"Splitscreen" redirects here. For other uses, see Split screen (disambiguation).
The first generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 with the split windshield, informally called the Microbus, Splitscreen, or Splittie among modern fans, was produced from 8 March through the end of the model year. From to , the T1 (not called that at the time) was built in Wolfsburg; from , it was built at the completely new Transporter factory in Hanover. Like the Beetle, the first Transporters used the Volkswagen air-cooled engine, an 1,cc (cuin), DIN-rated 18kW (24PS; 24bhp), air-cooledflat-four-cylinder'boxer' engine mounted in the rear. This was upgraded to the – an 1,cc (cuin) 22kW (30PS; 30bhp) in A higher compression ratio became standard in ; while an unusual early version of the 30kW (41PS; 40bhp) engine debuted exclusively on the Type 2 in Any models that retain that early engine today are rare. Since the engine was discontinued almost immediately, no spare parts were made available.
The early versions of the T1 until were often called the "Barndoor" (retrospectively called T1a since the s), owing to the enormous rear engine cover, while the later versions with a slightly modified body (the roofline above the windshield is extended), smaller engine bay, and 15" roadwheels instead of the original 16" ones are nowadays called the T1b (again, only called this since the s, based on VW's retrospective T1,2,3,4 etc. naming system.). From the model year, when the rear door was made wider (same as on the bay-window or T2), the vehicle could be referred to as the T1c. also saw the introduction of an optional sliding door for the passenger/cargo area instead of the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans.
In , a heavy-duty Transporter was introduced as a factory option. It featured a cargo capacity of 1,kg (2,lb) instead of the previous kg (1,lb), smaller but wider 14" roadwheels, and a L, 31kW (42PS; 42bhp) DIN engine. This was so successful that only a year later, the kg, L Transporter was discontinued. The model year introduced the engine – 1,cc (cuin) as standard equipment to the US market at 38kW (52PS; 51bhp) DIN with an 83mm (in) bore, 69mm (in) stroke, and compression ratio. When the Beetle received the L engine for the model year, its power was increased to 40kW (54PS; 54bhp) DIN.
German production stopped after the model year; however, the T1 still was made in Brazil until , when it was modified with a –79 T2-style front end, and big vintage taillights into the so-called "T" and produced until The Brazilian T1s were not identical to the last German models (the T was locally produced in Brazil using the s and s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre body style was retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doors and five-stud mm (in) Pitch Circle Diameter rims. Wheel tracks varied between German and Brazilian production and with inch, inch and inch wheel variants but commonly front track varied from mm to mm and rear track from mm to mm.
Among American enthusiasts, it is common to refer to the different models by the number of their windows. The basic Kombi or Bus is the window (a.k.a. three-window bus because of three side windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin door windows, six rear side windows, and one rear window. The DeLuxe model featured eight rear side windows and two rear corner windows, making it the window (not available in Europe). Meanwhile, the sunroof DeLuxe with its additional eight small skylight windows is, accordingly, the window. From the model year, with its wider rear door, the rear corner windows were discontinued, making the latter two the window and window respectively. The and later window variants each carry the nickname "Samba" or in Australia, officially "Alpine".
The Volkswagen Samba, in the United States marketed as the Sunroof Deluxe, was the most luxurious version of the T1. Volkswagen started producing Sambas in
In the US Volkswagen vans were informally identified by the window count. This particular model had 23 and later 21 windows including eight high windows in the roof. The 23 window variant also had curved windows in the rear corners. To distinguish it from the normal Volkswagen van, the name Samba was coined.
The Samba had bi-parting doors in lieu of a sliding door, and could be ordered with a large fabric sunroof. Volkswagen advertised the Samba for making tourist trips through the Alps.
Standard paint finishes on the Samba were two-tone, usually with the upper bodywork in white. The lower bodywork carried a contrasting color, the areas separated by a decorative strip. The roof carried slightly forward of the windshield at the front, creating an integral visor. The windows had chrome tables and the van had a more comprehensive dashboard than the normal T1.
When Volkswagen started producing the successor of the T1 (the T2) the company also stopped producing the Samba, ending the Samba and the concept of a van with such a high window count.
US Chicken Tax
Main article: Chicken tax
Certain models of the Volkswagen Type 2 played a role in a historic episode during the early s known as the Chicken War. France and West Germany had placed tariffs on imports of US chicken. Diplomacy failed, and in January , two months after taking office, President Johnson imposed a 25% tax (almost ten times the average US tariff) on potato starch, dextrin, brandy, and light trucks. Officially, the tax targeted items imported from Europe as approximating the value of lost American chicken sales to Europe.
In retrospect, audio tapes from the Johnson White House revealed a quid pro quo unrelated to chicken. In January , President Johnson attempted to convince United Auto Workers' president Walter Reuther not to initiate a strike just before the election, and to support the president's civil rights platform. Reuther, in turn, wanted Johnson to respond to Volkswagen's increased shipments to the United States.
The Chicken Tax directly curtailed importation of German-built Type 2s in configurations that qualified them as light trucks – that is, commercial vans (panel vans) and pickups; vans imported in passenger configuration were not affected. In , US imports of trucks from West Germany declined to a value of $million – about one-third the value imported in the previous year. After , Volkswagen cargo vans and pickup trucks, the intended targets, practically disappeared from the US market. While post Type 2 commercial vans and single-cab and double-cab pickups can be found in the United States today, they are exceedingly rare. Any post specimen found ostensibly has had its import tariff paid. The "Chicken tax" remains in effect today, even though it is now commonly circumvented by converting passenger vehicles to utility vehicles after they have entered the United States, a form of tariff engineering. This practice is ironically exercised by Ford (for its Transit Connect van) one of the companies the tax was meant to protect.
Second generation (T2; )
In late , the second generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) was introduced. It was built in West Germany until In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi and Panel were produced from to Models before are often called the T2a (or "Early Bay"), while models after are called the T2b (or "Late Bay").
This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, and was slightly larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its common nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, or Loaf and Bay for short. At L and 35kW (48PS; 47bhp) DIN, the engine was also slightly larger. The battery and electrical system was upgraded to 12 volts, making it incompatible with electric accessories from the previous generation. The new model also did away with the swing axle rear suspension and transfer boxes previously used to raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with constant velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes in camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The updated Bus transaxle is usually sought after by off-road racers using air-cooled Volkswagen components.
The T2b was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. The first models featured rounded bumpers incorporating a step for use when the door was open (replaced by indented bumpers without steps on later models), front doors that opened to 90° from the body, no lip on the front guards, unique engine hatches, and crescent air intakes in the D-pillars (later models after the Type 4 engine option was offered, have squared off intakes). The Type 2 featured a new, L engine with dual intake ports on each cylinder head and was DIN-rated at 37kW (50PS; 50bhp). An important change came with the introduction of front disc brakes and new roadwheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. Up until , front indicators are set low on the nose rather than high on either side of the fresh air grille – giving rise to their being nicknamed "Low Lights". 's most prominent change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger to litre engines from the Volkswagen Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron and introduced the larger late tail lights. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines.
In the cc Type 1 engine as used in the Beetle, was supplemented with the cc Type 4 engine – as it was originally designed for the Type 4 ( and ) models. European vans kept the option of upright fan Type 1 engine but the Type 4 became standard for US spec models.
In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine, or "pancake engine", was an option for the model year onward. This engine was standard in models destined for the US and Canada. Only with the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become available for the first time in the model year. Both engines were L, DIN-rated at 49kW (67PS; 66bhp) with the manual transmission and 46kW (63PS; 62bhp) with the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to L and 50kW (68PS; 67bhp) DIN for the model year and again to L and 52kW (71PS; 70bhp) DIN for the model year. The two-litre option appeared in South African manufactured models during , originally only in a comparably well-equipped "Executive" model. The L now featured hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the need to periodically adjust the valve clearances as on earlier models. The and later US model years received BoschL-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as standard equipment; was the first year for electronic ignition, utilizing a hall effect sensor and digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. As with all Transporter engines, the focus in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 engines were considerably more robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in Transporter service.
In , for the model year, exterior revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off and set higher in the valance, above the headlights. Also, square-profiled bumpers, which became standard until the end of the T2 in , were introduced in Crash safety improved with this change because of a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant that the T2b was capable of meeting US safety standards for passenger cars of the time, though not required of vans. The "VW" emblem on the front valance became slightly smaller.
Later model changes were primarily mechanical. By , the T2 had gained its final shape. Very late in the T2's design life, during the late s, the first prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive (4WD) were built and tested.
Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) "Silverfish" last-edition bus. These were a limited edition model to mark the final production of T2 models in Europe
Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) Hard-Top Westfalia "Cream" bus
Brazilian Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) – Limited Edition
Volkswagen Kombi Westfalia (North America)
The T2c, with a roof raised by about 10cm (in) was built starting in the early s for the Mexican, South American and Central American markets. Since , the T2c has been built in México with the water-cooled L inline four-cylinder 53kW (72PS; 71bhp) carbureted engine—easily identified by the large, black front-mounted radiator—and since with the L air-cooled engines for the Brazilian market.
Once production of the original Beetle ended in late , the T2 was the only Volkswagen model with an air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine, but then the Brazilian model shifted to a water-cooled engine on 23 December  There was a L 50hp (37kW; 51PS) water-cooled diesel engine available from to , which gave fuel economy of 15km/l to 18km/l—but gave slow performance and its insufficient cooling system led to short engine life.
The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine on a worldwide basis was marked by a Special Edition Kombi. An exclusive Silver paint job, and limited edition emblems were applied to only units in late , and were sold as models.
Stricter emissions regulations introduced by the Brazilian government for forced a shift to a flexible-fuel water-cooled engine able to run on petrol or alcohol. Borrowed from the Volkswagen Gol, the engine is a rear-mounted EA L 8v Total Flex 1,cc (cuin), 58kW (79PS; 78bhp) on petrol, and 60kW (82PS; 80bhp) when run on ethanol, and N⋅m (91lbf⋅ft) torque.
The production of the Brazilian Volkswagen Kombi ended in with a production run of Last Edition vehicles. A short film entitled "Os Últimos Desejos da Kombi" (English: The Kombi's Last Wishes) was made by Volkswagen Brazil to commemorate the end of production.
Third generation (T3; )
Main article: Volkswagen Type 2 (T3)
The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3), (and occasionally T25 within the UK, but technically incorrect) or Vanagon in the United States, the T3 platform was introduced in , and was one of the last new Volkswagen platforms to use an air-cooled engine. The Volkswagen air-cooled engine was phased out for a water-cooledboxer engine (still rear-mounted) in Compared to its predecessor the T2, the T3 was larger and heavier, with square corners replacing the rounded edges of the older models. The T3 is sometimes called "the wedge" by enthusiasts to differentiate it from earlier Kombis.
Fourth generation (T4; )
Main article: Volkswagen Transporter (T4)
For , the T4 generation was released, with the model range dropping the Type 2 name in favor of the Transporter nameplate. Over 15 years after the Golf was introduced as the replacement for the Type 1 (Beetle), the Transporter range also adopted a front-engine, front-wheel drive configuration (Syncro 4WD returned as an option). Worldwide, the model range now used water-cooled, fuel-injected engines, with inline (and later VR6) engines replacing the "wasserboxer".
Through much of the world, the T4 was marketed as the Transporter, with 3-row passenger vans known as the Caravelle; the Vanagon name was used in Japan. In the United States, the T4 was marketed as the Eurovan mid-size van for and from to ; from to , the Eurovan served as the basis for multiple recreational vehicles marketed through the United States and Canada. Sales of the Transporter in North America ended in
Fifth generation (T5; )
Main article: Volkswagen Transporter (T5)
The Volkswagen Transporter T5 range is the fifth generation of Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles medium-sized light commercial vehicle and people movers. Launched 6 January , the T5 went into full production in April , replacing the fourth generation range.
Key markets for the T5 are Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, France and Turkey. It is not sold in the US market because it is classed as a light truck, accruing the 25% chicken tax on importation. The T5 has a more aerodynamic design. The angle of the windshield and A-pillar is less; this makes for a large dashboard and small bonnet.
In June , Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles announced the one-millionth T5 rolled off the production line in Hanover.
T5 GP introduced in Heavily facelifted with some new power plants including the bi-turbo range topper. These new engines saw the demise of the now "dirty" 5 cylinder units.
Late will see the arrival of the "Neu Sechs", the New 6. The T6 will offer further engine changes in early , but will launch with the previous generation engines. The new engines will see the introduction of Ad-Blu to meet with euro 6 emission compliance. The new 6 was expected by many to be more than just a facelift.
Sixth generation (T6; )
Main article: Volkswagen Transporter (T6)
The new T6 launched with the old Euro 5 non-AdBlue power-plants, but is offered with a Euro 6 diesel engine with bhp and AdBlue. Three further Euro 6 Adblue diesel power-plants with 84ps, ps and ps are also offered.
There is some debate in the community over whether the T6 is a new model, or simply a face-lift of the T5. There are obvious external changes to the nose and tailgate, while internally there is a new dash in two different versions. Volkswagen claims refinement to ride, handling and noise levels.
Volkswagen Microbus Concept
In , a Volkswagen Microbus Concept was created, with design cues from the T1 generation in a spirit similar to the New Beetle nostalgia movement. Volkswagen planned to start selling it in the United States market in , but it was scrapped in May and replaced with a more cost-effective design to be sold worldwide.
Names and nicknames
Like the Beetle, from the beginning, the Type 2 earned many nicknames from its fans. Among the most popular at least in Germany, are VW-Bus and Bulli (or Bully) or Hippie-van or the bus. The Type 2 was meant to be officially named the Bully, but Heinrich Lanz, producer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The model was then presented as the Volkswagen Transporter and Volkswagen Kleinbus, but the Bully nickname still caught on.
The official German-language model names Transporter and Kombi (Kombinationskraftwagen, combined-use vehicle) have also caught on as nicknames. Kombi is not only the name of the passenger variant but also the Australasian and Brazilian term for the whole Type 2 family, in much the same way that they are all called VW-Bus in Germany, even the pickup truck variations. In Mexico, the German Kombi was translated as Combi and became a household word thanks to the vehicle's popularity in Mexico City's public transportation system. In Peru, where the term Combi was similarly adopted, the term Combi Asesina (Murderous Combi) is often used for buses of similar size, because of the notorious recklessness and competition of bus drivers in Lima to get passengers. In Portugal it is known as Pão-de-Forma (Breadloaf) because its design resembles a bread baked in a mold. Similarly, in Denmark, the Type 2 is referred to as Rugbrød (Rye bread). Finns dubbed it Kleinbus (mini-bus), as many taxicab companies adopted it for group transportation; the name Kleinbus has become an appellative for all passenger vans. The vehicle is also known as Kleinbus in Chile.
In the US, however, it is a VW bus, minibus, hippie-mobile, hippie bus, hippie van, "combie", Microbus, or Transporter to aficionados. The early versions produced before used a split front windshield (giving rise to the nickname "Splitty"), and their comparative rarity has led to their becoming sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. The next version, sold in the US market from to , is characterised by a large, curved windshield and is commonly called a "bay-window". It was replaced by the Vanagon, of which only the Westfalia camper version has a common nickname, "Westy".
A popular nickname for the T3 was "i" or "transi" in reference to the liter Microbus/Caravelle sold South Africa and their robust design being a popular choice for transportation of children respectively . Kombi is also a generic nickname for vans and minibuses in South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe, often used as a means of public transportation. In Nigeria it is called Danfo.
In the UK, it is known as a "Campervan". In France, it was called a "camping-car" (usually hyphenated) though this has been expanded to include other, often more specialized vehicles in more recent times.
Among VW enthusiasts in countries of the former Yugoslavia, especially in Serbia and Croatia, VW T2 bus is commonly called a "Terrorist", probably due its cameo appearance in the Back to the Future film where it is driven by a group of Libyan terrorists.
T2 production began in at the Puebla assembly factory.
Offered initially only as a nine-passenger version called the Volkswagen Combi (Kombi in Brazil), and from also its cargo van version called the Volkswagen Panel, both variants were fitted with the L air-cooled boxer engine and four-speed manual gearbox. In , the L 44bhp (33kW; 45PS) boxer engine replaced the previous one, and production continued this way up to In , the water-cooled L 85bhp (63kW; 86PS) inline four-cylinder engine replaced the air-cooled L. This new model is recognisable by its black grille (for its engine coolant radiator), bumpers and moldings.
In , Volkswagen de México ordered two specially made pickups from Germany, one single cab and one double cab, for the Puebla plant. These were evaluated for the possibility of building pickups in Mexico, and were outfitted with every option except the Arctic package, including front and rear fog lights, intermittent wipers, trip odometer, clock, bumper rubber, PVC tilt, and dual doors on the single cab storage compartment. VW de Mexico was interested in having the lights, wiring, brake systems and other parts manufactured in Mexico. Ultimately, VW de Mexico declined to produce pickups, and the pickups were sold to an Autohaus, a Volkswagen dealer in San Antonio, Texas, since they could not be sold in Mexico. By law, no German-made Volkswagens were to be sold in Mexico. These were probably the only pickups that were produced in Germany for Mexican import, and have the "ME" export code on the M-code plate. The green double cab was sold to a new owner in New York, and has been lost track of. The light gray (L, licht grau) single cab still exists. Pickups were not manufactured in Mexico, nor were they imported into Mexico from Germany, save for these two examples.
In , a luxury variant – the Volkswagen Caravelle – made its debut in the Mexican market to compete with the Nissan Ichi Van, which was available in cargo, passenger and luxury versions.
The main differences between the two are that the Caravelle was sold as an eight-passenger version, while the Combi was available as a nine-passenger version, the Caravelle was only painted in metallic colors, while the Combi was only available in non-metallic colors, and the Caravelle was fitted with an AM/FM stereo cassette sound system, tinted windows, velour upholstery, reading lights, mid and rear headrests, and wheel covers from the European T3 model.
In , the 10cm (in) higher roof made its debut in all variants, and the Combi began to be offered in eight- or nine-passenger variants. In , since Mexican anti-pollution regulations required a three-way catalytic converter, a Digifantfuel injection system replaced the previous carburetor. The three variants continued without change until
In , production ended in Mexico, with models being imported from Brazil. The Caravelle was discontinued, and both the Combi and the Panel were only offered in white color and finally in , replaced by the T4 EuroVan Pasajeros and EuroVan Carga, passenger and cargo van in long wheelbase version, inline five-cylinder L bhp and five-speed manual gearbox imported from Germany.
The VW Type 2 became popular with the counterculture of the s, thanks to its ability to transport a large group of people while being cheap and easy to maintain. Its design was simple yet spacious, thanks largely to the rear-mounted engine. It contrasted with the large, low sedans that were normal at the time, giving the van an alternative and rebellious image. Vans were often painted with extravagant designs in bright colors, making them stand out on the road even more. The "hippie van" remains iconic today, thanks to being featured of the cover of albums by musicians such as Bob Dylan and the Beach Boys, and being used by fans of the Grateful Dead while following the band on tour. But most iconic of all, the music festival Woodstock, which was held in the summer of , saw plenty of brightly-painted vans transporting excited young crowds.
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- ^ abcBradsher, Keith (30 November ). "Light Trucks increase profits, but foul air more than cars". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved 27 May
- ^"Type II Volkswagen (thing)", section "Type 2/T2"Archived 17 August at the Wayback Machine (spells the term "Bread-Loaf")
- ^English, Howard (October ). "Volkswagen L Executive Microbus". SA Motor. Cape Town, South Africa: Scott Publications:
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- ^"VW Type 2 Microbus production ending with Kombi Last Edition". Auto Express. 18 August Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 10 June
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The UK Sports Cars Showroom
A very pleasant example. This is a genuine German built bus that was supplied to the UK in and complete with its factory VIN plate and M Code plate to confirm its authenticity from factory.
Restoration orchestrated by the previous owner which involved a complete strip down of the bus to its bare bones to identify which areas required attention. This soon turned into a rotisserie restoration where the entire shell was stripped of its components and placed on its side on a jig so that the underside could be attended to in detail. All of the doors were removed from the bus at the same time so that they could be attended to individually.
The bus was then primed and painted in early and desirable Volkswagen colours, Sealing Wax Red / Beige Grey.
cc recon engine has been inspected and serviced on the bench and runs well. Replacement 12v wiring loom. Brand new brakes all round. Very enjoyable bus to drive and will come with 12 months MOT even though it no longer requires one by law just for additional peace of mind.
The bus currently has a Devon interior installed and chequered Red / White flooring. The interior is in good condition for its age being 50+ years old but the woodwork obviously is not new.
Bespoke interiors on these buses are our specialty. Our usual procedure with a bus like this would be to build and install a bespoke interior specified by us to what we consider to be the best selling specification and then advertise it to the market once complete. On this occasion however, we have decided to leave the interior as it is to allow the new owner to decide whether they prefer the current setup or would like a new bespoke interior built to their exact preference / specification. We have had so many requests for this as when it comes to soft furnishings, layouts etc. it is very much a matter of personal preference so this now allows for you to choose everything from upholstery options to appliance should this be the option for you. All of this can be discussed in great detail so if you are interested in this vehicle, please call us today and we will happily go through all options, pricing etc.
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VW BUS WESTFALIA CAMPER INTERIOR
Volkswagen Bus/Vanagon Additional Info:
VW BUS WESTFALIA CAMPER INTERIOR
PAINTED IN ORIGINAL COLOR DOVE BLUE.
ORIGINAL ROOF RACK.
This is a VERY BEAUTIFUL and VERY ORIGINAL VW CAMPER KOMBI Bus manufactured in Germany.I purchased this bus as a project in late It took me three years to find all original parts, manage restoration work and to bring this beauty back to its glory.Finest materials were used. See all the details in the photos.It also hasa lot of hard to find and rare original featuressuch as the original curtains (mustard yellow and brown), all original bumpers, the original roof rack and theWestfalia camper interior. Currently registered and AllDMV fees paidtill Dec It’s an Original California Car. I kept it stored in my garage in between all restoration work. I put a lot of time and way too much money into this project that I was planning to keep for myself. I need the money and I am willing to pass this dreamcar on.
Please see all photos and the video for details(Link to video on third photo).
In the following description I am trying to list most of the countless hours of work invested and countless new parts that were installed. I am trying to describe the vehicle as good and detailed as I can. This is a vintage vehicle "Sold AS IS".
Typ 2 (T1) Mod. Kombi, Cargo doors right. Production Date: Nov. 15th, , Model-year: , Destination: San Francisco, USA. Paint color: L31 Dove Blue. See photos of plates and title on last photo.
- Painted inDove blue (L31).The paint job was done well. It looks very original (not too glossy).
- Rims, roof rack, emblems and bumperspainted in original beige color.
- Original VW emblemwas purchased and installed. It is the real original emblem. These are expensive ($) and hard to find.
- Chrome mirrorsinstalled.
- Newwindshield wiper armsand blades installed (After the video and photos were taken).
- Newwindow sealsand other water strips installed (All of them). This bus has countless of small vent window and rubbers…
- TheBumpersconsist of many parts. I took me a long time to find every single piece. Some of the pieces were restored, some of them were bought brand new. When they were complete I had spent around $ on the bumpers alone.
-Beautiful original large roof racknicely restored and painted. It is very solid. I did not try but you could probably stand on it or store heavy stuff when you are travelling.
The interior of the bus isvery nicely restored by a professional upholstererusinghigh quality materials(Please see detailed photos). Everything looks almost exactly as back in the days. Maybe better…
Some of the original Westfalia camper parts were in the bus. I collected all other parts over time. The upholsterer refurbished some of the cabinets and completely builtwhat was not worth restoring. The beautiful veneer for all cabinets was purchased at Frost Hardwood Lumber Co. in San Diego. The color is called amber pearwood.
- Carpet:A black carpet was used in front and center of this bus.
- Panels:All panels are very nicely custom built in wood using the original measurements. All panels were varnished so that they can last for a long time.
- Headliner: The headliner was done in wood. It is really hard to make and install the headliner right…
- Original Closet cabinetcompletely custom builtusing original measurements and quality materials. Original handles, knobs and cabinet edging trim were purchased from Wolfsburg West and Busdepot. Both doors are functioning well.
- Original Closet cabinet above bedcompletely custom builtusing original measurements and quality materials.
-Cabinet with ice boxrefurbished, original handles from Wolfsburg West used. This cabinetwas adjusted to match the westy look.
-Tablerefurbished. It goes up and down nicely and is % functional. It's kept original.
-Camper bench seatwood was completely custom builtusing original measurements and quality materials.
-Z-Bed was completely custom builtusing original measurements and quality materials. Z Bed is fully functionally and folds down to a good sized bed.
- Small drivers side trunk closetwas completely custom builtusing original measurements and quality materials.
- Cushionsof the seats, bench and the trunk cushions were made by a professional upholsterer using high quality materials.The color almost perfectly matches the original mustard yellowish upholstery color.
-Camper windowsare fully functional and open and close nicely. Only one knob is missing but I am looking for it.
- Theoriginal Westfalia camper curtainsin brown and mustard yellow are really hard to find. I found a person in Canada who was able to provide the original fabric and knobs.
- Engineruns nicely andtransmissionshifts smoothly.
- dual portstrong enough to get you and your family up a steep hill.
-Enginewas completely rebuilt in Engine waspartitiallypainted to match the color of the exterior.
-Nice new chrome parts installed.
New nicechrome mufflerinstalled.
- Brakes work well. They were serviced and many parts were replaced with new parts.
-New gaskets, light bulbs for lights…
-New windshield wiperengine installed.
- Lights, blinkers, windshield wipers everything works!
- Horn needs to be installed.
- Alllockswere redone by a professional locksmith (After video and photos were taken). One set of keys work for the ignition and all locks. I purchased quality locks at Vee Parts in San Diego ($ for parts alone). It comes with a beautiful brand new VWkey chain(see on photos) in blue and beige matching the colors of the bus.
Facts about this car
No matter if you are a collector or if you simply want to drive the possible coolest and most loved car ever made, this is your rare chance to own a Split window camper bus. You won’t be able to drive or just be near this bus without receiving love, positive vibes and more thumbs up than you can count in one day. If you don’t like all the attention then storing this car at a safe place is probably one of the best investments you can do with your money. There are not many Split window Westfalia’s around and the value only goes up.
It took uncountable hours to find all the parts and to manage all the work. It is close to where I wanted it to be. However, this is avintage vehicle.Please be aware that all pre-owned vehicles, regardless of age, mileage or manufacturer aresubject to cosmetic wear and mechanical failure.
I encourage the buyer to have apersonalinspectioncompletedprior to buyingto help ensure the satisfaction. Third party inspections are to take place prior to a buying on this vehicle.
Vehicle issold "AS IS"and with no warranties expressed or implied. I assume no responsibility for any repairs regardless of any statements about this vehicle.Serious buyers only. Do not contact me if you are not seriously interested and funded to buy this car.By bidding you agree to these terms, get your spouse'spermissionbefore you bid.
1. Per the Ebay User Agreement, by placing a bid you are entering into a legal contract and are committed to purchasing the vehicle described above. The details of this commitmen in the Ebay User Agreement, all non-paying Ebay members are reported to consolidated recovery system. A Collection agency and will appear on your credit report Vehicle may be sold prior to the end of the auction. I reserve the right to end its auctions early or to cancel bids solely at its direction and shall not be held liable for any such3. The winning bidder is required to contact me within 24 hours after the close of the auction to finalize the details of the transaction4. A $1, non-refundable deposit is required within one business day (24) hours of the auction's close. The deposit reserves the vehicle and removes it from the market If winning bidder does not contact me within 24 hours and doesn't submit deposit within one business day or 24 hours of auction close, vehicle may be available to the next highes qualified buyer on a first come, first serve basis I have represented this vehicle to the best of its ability. Prospective bidders are encouraged to contact me directly to provide additional information or answer any questions Please be aware that all pre-owned vehicles, regardless of age, mileage or manufacturer are subject to cosmetic wear and mechanical failure. I encourage bidder to have a inspection completed prior to bidding to help ensure your satisfaction. Third party inspections are to take place prior to a bidding on vehicles Vehicle is sold "AS IS" and with no warranties expressed or implied Final of winning bid price does not include shipping, tag, title, or registration fees. It is the purchaser's responsibility to provide for any state or local taxes and shipping expenses I can assist you in getting the vehicle to the transport truck driver of your choice in San Diego. I assume no responsibility for damages or delays incurred once a vehicle is shipped I bear no liability and shall be held harmless for any complications, expenses, or damages resulting from a failure to meet these terms as they have been set forth and established This auction process is a legally binding contract into which you enter when you click "confirm" on your bid. Please have financesapprovalin order before you decide to bid and please as you decide to bid. Basically, please only bid if you are ready to purchase this car. Car is sold as-is with no warranties express or implied. License plate is not included. Any disputes this vehicle shall be resolved through binding arbitration exclusively in San Diego county, under applicable state laws.
PLUG, THREADED SEAT BELT ADAPTOR WITH BOLT, PAIR *Item #:
HOG RING KIT FOR SEAT COVER INSTALL, RINGS WITH PLIERSItem #:
SILICONE SPRAY, FOR SEAT FOAM, REDUCES FRICTION & WEAR (ITEM CANNOT BE SHIPPED, PICK UP ONLY)Item #:
Description: SILICONE SPRAY, FOR SEAT FOAM, REDUCES FRICTION & WEAR (ITEM CANNOT BE SHIPPED, PICK UP ONLY)
STOPS, FRONT SEAT BACKREST, SET OF 4, BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM*Item #: ASeat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels
STOPS, FRONT SEAT BASE PADS, SET OF 4, BUS & BUSItem #: A
STOP, FRONT 2/3 SEAT BASE BETWEEN SEAT FRAME & PEDESTAL MAT, BUSItem #: AInterior Rubber & Plastic|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Interior Rubber & Plastic|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Interior Rubber & Plastic|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Interior Rubber & Plastic|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Interior Rubber & Plastic|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Interior Rubber & Plastic
RUBBER MAT, BLACK, FRONT SEATS, WRAP AROUND SIDE & REAR OF SEAT PEDESTAL, WALK THRU BUS (Works in conjunction with B)Item #: ACarpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Floor Mats|Floor Mats|Floor Mats|Floor Mats|Floor Mats|Rubber Mats & Coco Mats|Bus Carpet Front Floor & Pedestal|Floor Mats|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels|Seat Parts & Accessories|Seat Parts & Accessories / Rear Kick Panels
Description: RUBBER MAT, BLACK, FRONT SEATS, WRAP AROUND SIDE & REAR OF SEAT PEDESTAL, WALK THRU BUS (Works in conjunction with B)
Item #: A
BED KIT, TURN YOUR REAR SEAT INTO A FOLD OUT BED, FITS BUSItem #: ZVW-BED
Bus 1964 interior vw
NUT & WASHER 4 PIECE SET FOR ARMREST BRACKETS, BUG , GHIA , TYPE 3 , BUS *GERMAN*Item #:
Description: NUT & WASHER 4 PIECE SET FOR ARMREST BRACKETS, BUG , GHIA , TYPE 3 , BUS *GERMAN*
ARMREST BRACKET, SET OF 2, BUG , GHIA , TYPE 3 , BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM* (Nuts Part # )Item #:
Description: ARMREST BRACKET, SET OF 2, BUG , GHIA , TYPE 3 , BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM* (Nuts Part # )
SPRINGS, UNDER DOOR HANDLE & WINDOW CRANK BEHIND DOOR PANEL, SET OF 2, BUG / BUS / GHIA / TYPE 3 *MADE IN USA BY WCM*Item #: C
Description: SPRINGS, UNDER DOOR HANDLE & WINDOW CRANK BEHIND DOOR PANEL, SET OF 2, BUG / BUS / GHIA / TYPE 3 *MADE IN USA BY WCM*
Item #: C
COMPLETE DOOR PANEL SET, 10 PIECES, BLACK, BUS (Call or Email to order)Item #: L/R-BKDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
COMPLETE DOOR PANEL SET, 10 PIECES, GREY, BUS (Call or Email to order)Item #: L/R-GYDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
COMPLETE DOOR PANEL SET, 10 PIECES, TAN, BUS (Call or Email to order)Item #: L/R-TNDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
COMPLETE DOOR PANEL SET, 10 PIECES, WHITE, BUSItem #: L/R-WHDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
DOOR PANELS, FRONT, BLACK, BUSItem #: L/R-BKDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
DOOR PANELS, FRONT, GREY, BUSItem #: L/R-GYDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
DOOR PANELS, FRONT, TAN, BUSItem #: L/R-TNDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
DOOR PANELS, FRONT, WHITE, BUSItem #: L/R-WHDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
KICK PANELS, BLACK VINYL, BUSItem #: L/R-BKDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
KICK PANELS, GREY VINYL, BUSItem #: L/R-GYDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
KICK PANELS, TAN VINYL, BUSItem #: L/R-TNDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
KICK PANELS, WHITE VINYL, BUSItem #: L/R-WHDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
ARMREST, GRAPHITE GRAY, BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM* (3 required per Bus)Item #: DKGY
ARMREST, GRAY, BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM* (3 required per Bus)Item #: GY
ARMREST, CREAM WHITE, BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM* (3 required per bus)Item #: IV
CHURCH KEY HOLDER SCREWS TO KICK PANEL, BUS *MADE IN USA BY WCM*Item #:
CHURCH KEY, FOR ENGINE LID, GAS FLAP & SIDE STORAGE, BUSItem #:
CHURCH KEY, P-STYLE, FOR ENGINE LID, GAS FLAP & SIDE CARGO, BUSItem #:
SCREWS WITH CAPTURED WASHER, INTERIOR DOOR PANELS, SET OF *GERMAN* BUSItem #: SDoor Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories|Interior & Door Panels|Door Panels / Rear Panels & Accessories (Bus)
The whole group - Ivan, Anton, Dimka, Julia, Tanechka - all groaned in ecstasy of simultaneous orgasm. Finally, everyone finished. Anton and Ivan, breathing heavily, sat down to rest on the couch. Tanya got up from Yulia and sat on the floor, spreading her legs wide and throwing them on the couch.
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He asked - You look somehow confused or something. - Everything is fine, dear, I just had a bad dream. There was a whole day ahead and I decided that I would think it over a little later, but for now I can. Work at home while my husband thought nothing.